Definition and reason
Tuberkolose due to infection with the bacteriumMycobakteriumtuberculosis. Bakterien transmitted by inhalation of droplets in the air from coughing, talking or newly. It can also be transmitted by drinking from the same glass or bottle (the disease more often seen in alcoholics). After inhalation infiltrating the bacterium in the first game of the lungs. Spread can then be made to other bodies, most of the bones, brain and kidneys.
Contrary to the impression many people have tuberculosis not a particular infectious disease, since infection requires that the bacterium comes right down in the outer sections of the lungs. It is estimated that each sick person, on average, infecting one other in a month. However, there are great differences in the susceptible people.
Bakterien forming in the lung a formeringssted, a so-called tuberculosis. From here the colony grows, and it could spread to, inter alia, lymph nodes in the area and form new tuberkler there.
If you have a normal immune system, you will usually not be sick of the infection. Bakterien will be fought on the body and die. In other cases encapsulation bacterium in a bindevævskapsel and go to sleep in the lungs. If the immune system later weakened, the disease may break out again. Is there a way to be infected, you have lifelong immunity.
Worldwide, tuberculosis remains a major problem, and it is expected that around. 1 / 3 of the world's population is infected. In Denmark and the rest of Scandinavia, the incidence of tuberculosis is the lowest in the world, but the problem is increasing. The largest of the presence there of immigrants, but the increase in travel has also influenced the increased incidence. In Greenland, tuberculosis remains a major problem and is 10 times more frequently than in Denmark.
Symptoms of TB
The disease can prove either as the primary (first) infection, or by breaking out year after infection, so-called chronic tuberculosis.
The symptoms of primary pulmonary tuberculosis is easily forkølelsesfølelse or no symptoms, and often you will never discover that one has been infected with tuberculosis. Chronic pulmonary tuberculosis gives more difficult symptoms, with initiatives cough and opspyt, in bad cases with blodtilblanding. Night sweats, low-grade fever and weight loss is not uncommon.
Seeing Monday cough and opspyt for a period of more than 3 weeks, it is important to consult a doctor.
If the bacterium is spreading, there symptoms of the bodies involved (see Select and complications)
Precautions and diagnosis
Avoid unnecessary close contact with persons that are hosting or are suspected of being infected. Avoid sharing glass or bottle in the other.
By travelling to areas with high prevalence of tuberculosis, it is recommended to be tuberculosis vaccination before departure. This is largely about the sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia, but also the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Greenland are affected.
The suspected tuberculosis doctor will take a X-ray of the lungs. If you have, or have been, tuberculosis will be seen white opklaringer often at the top of the lungs, called kaverner. Is kaverner on X-ray, sent a spytprøve for laboratory testing for so-called acid-alcohol standard bacterium rods (TB bacterium). The disease is in its infectious stage, if laboratoriesvaret is positive. In the last few years has developed fast methods to detect tuberculosis infection. They carried out using the DNA of the infected.
In a so-called mantoux test can spray a non-hazardous material from the TB bacterium (tuberculin) under the skin, and if the body has been in contact with tuberculosis before (Monday have been, or are infected), the immune system react, and there is a small round rash around the injection.
We must keep in mind that there will also respond if the person is vaccinated against tuberculosis. New tests are under development and introduction.
Treatment of tuberculosis
Untreated TB is a fatal disease, and it is important to begin treatment before the disease develops and spreads.
The treatment runs over 6 months and is a four-drug medicine cure. The first three months of Rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamid and etambutol, the last three months only with rifampicin and isoniazid.
Adverse reactions are few, and the treatment is effective.
Select and complications
Only about. 5% of people infected with tuberculosis, develop disease. Untreated, this serious with high mortality. By the timely and proper treatment, it is now very rarely a disease that can die from.
The proliferation of bodies other than the lungs is a feared complication. Tuberculosis in the brain can give encefalitis and / or meningitis , Which has a serious forecast.
Griber it on the bones, these may be weakened, which can lead to fractures.
The liver, kidney and tarminvolvering due to tuberculosis seen and are serious conditions.