Definition and causes
Plettyfus is a bacterial disease that primarily transmitted when wrangle of infected louse . Lusen produce some small bacteria, the so-called rickettsier, which enters the body when the person scratches at bidstedet. A few cases of infection occurred through inhalation of bakterierester.
People do not spill each other, but when lusene jump from person to person, it is important to eradicate them.
The disease is most frequent places where there are large quantities of louse. It may be places where people live close together (prisons, camps, etc.). Or as a result of poor hygiene. It is described in particular the World Wars and after natural disasters.
Following the development of antibiotics, the disease is now easy to treat, and very few die, if they are treated.
The disease is very rare in industrialized countries, but imported cases can not be avoided.
Symptoms of typhus fever
Plettyfus primarily affects skin, muscles and central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). After the infection is typically 8-14 days before you get symptoms, and the first is usually:
- Joint pain and muskelømhed
- Cough which may result from bronchitis
These symptoms may lie with more serious symptoms of central nervous system. These are
- Confusion with bevidsthedssløring, confusion and impaired perception of the environment (delirium)
- Susen in the ears and loss of hearing
After about. 5 days there is also a rødbrunt rash of armhulerne, on the shoulders and upper body, which lasts about. 10. days
Normally, fever product around. 2 weeks, then gradually disappear. It must however be expected that in several months after the disease will feel tired and off-colour.
The diagnosis typhus fever made by taking a blood sample for testing for antibodies and a small vævsstykke from the skin, which can be examined in several ways. Vævsstykket stained only with special substances and then examined microscopically. If this is not enough, you can by modern technology called PCR (polymerase chain reaction), to investigate proteinstrukturer and to identify the disease.
Because of the influence of the central nervous system (see symptoms), you will often also explore some of immunforsvarets cells in spinalvæsken by a lumbar puncture .
Consideration of typhus fever
The disease affects adults and the worst result in some. half of the cases to death if not treated. If treatment with antibiotics rather quickly, there are very few deaths from the disease. Some are so sick that they must have væskebehandling at the hospital.
Aflusning is also a very important part of treatment to avoid repeating lusebid and spread to others.
Select and complications
In very serious cases can cause unconsciousness and death because of kredsløbsshock . There may also arise kidney That can be a serious illness.
The vast majority of curable with antibiotics, but in some people may be susceptible to the resurgence of the disease. Is this the case, the symptoms tend to be milder than the first time.
Prevention of typhus fever
It can be vaccinated against typhus fever, and this vaccine is used primarily for vulnerable professions. As an example, that for many years back (in some countries) vaccinated soldiers before they went to war.
The main measures in connection with typhus fever is to keep a good hygiene and combat major outbreaks of louse. Health care personnel who have contact with patients with typhus fever should wear masks because the bacteria can be inhaled.