Definition and causes
Tuberculosis is a contagious disease that is caused by the bacteriumMycobacterium tuberculosis. Man infected with tuberculosis by breathing in droplets or dust in which the bacterium can be found. To the bacterium to be found here, there must be a person with pulmonary tuberculosis, are hosting in the surroundings. Tuberculosis is not highly infectious and contagious not usually after brief contact with a tuberkulosepatient. As is typically only close family members infected.
Tuberculosis can give symptoms from all parts of the body, but often there is involvement of the lungs. Tuberculosis most often affects adults, but it is also seen in children (see also Tuberculosis ).
The children are usually infected by adult family members. In Denmark, which annually 20-40 children who have tuberculosis and it is about. 85% of children of different ethnic origin than English. This is because the incidence of tuberculosis is higher in many of the countries from which migrants come from. Most of TB will never symptoms, but TB can break out several times with the same person. Often, the symptoms occur when the immune system is weakened, so that tuberkelbakterierne have the opportunity
Children under 12 years of tuberculosis infecting virtually no. Their lungs often contain only a few tuberkelbakterier, and their hostekraft is less than adults, so that they can not cough up the bacteria. In addition to sink children more often the slim, the hosts up.
Symptoms of TB in children
The symptoms are the same as in adults. By pulmonary tuberculosis seen:
- The prolonged cough
- Prolonged low fever
- Weight loss
Tuberculosis can be found in virtually all organs and can provide many different non-specific symptoms from it. In particular, can be seen:
- Raised lymph nodes, which are firm and not sore when labels on them. They can be found anywhere on the body, most frequently in the neck, in armhulerne and lysken.
- Broken bones due to weakening of bones, in which the bacteria multiply.
- Abdominal pain and diarrhoea
- Symptoms of cystitis
Precautions and diagnosis
Avoid the child is unnecessary close contact with persons who are active pulmonary tuberculosis .
If a child for a long time has had the above symptoms, and if there is reason to believe that the child could be infected with tuberculosis, should be a doctor.
The doctor will take a sample from any of the slim, child hosts. If this can not be done, you can flush the stomach and examine skyllevæsken for tuberkelbakterier. In children who are not vaccinated against tuberculosis, can you create a so-called Mantoux test, where parts of tuberkelbakterien injected under the skin. If you have been exposed to infection, will be a few days after the injection seen rashes on the skin. This test is not quite sure. There is a newer test, which is a blodprøv
Treatment of tuberculosis in children
Treatment of TB is long and requires treatment with multiple antibiotics, as tuberkelbakterien otherwise become resistant to treatment. Similarly, it is important to the treatment carried out very consistently by the bacterium not killed in whole or develop resistance to treatment. Antibiotikabehandlingen consists usually of 3 or 4 types of antibiotics in two months and then 2 kind of antibiotics in the next 4 months. During the measured concentrate
Select and complications
Most have no symptoms of tuberculosis, but especially if the immune system is weakened, the disease may break out and give symptoms. The risk of developing disease is greatest in the first six months after infection, but it can be seen for many years after infection. Tuberculosis can now be treated effectively, but untreated can be a fatal disease.
Prevention of tuberculosis in childrenIn countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is high, children are often vaccinated against tuberculosis. The vaccine is given as an injection. In Denmark, children are not routinely vaccinated against tuberculosis. It is recommended that children be vaccinated if they are to countries where there is high prevalence of tuberculosis and particularly if they are to have close contact with the local population in these countries.