Definition and causes
Diphtheria is a serious infectious disease, transmitted by the bacteriumCorynebacterium diphteriae. The disease found primarily in Eastern Europe and developing countries, and is seen only as imported cases in Denmark.
All children vaccinated by børnevaccinationsprogrammet , And the disease is now rare in Denmark.
The disease manifests itself as a serious infection in the mucous membranes struben and throat. Bakterien produces a poison that prevents the cells in the mucous membrane in the neck to renew itself. This leads to inflammation and cell death that may have a very bad process.
Symptoms of diphtheria
Smittes Monday with diphtheria, is the first visible symptom usually, to almonds (tonsils) at the back of the throat covered by gråhvide coverings. These usually begin to soften, if you try to remove them. The person will usually complain about:
- Pain in the neck.
- Education sygdomsfornemmelse.
There may also arise large swelling in the neck with starting aflukning of the airways. This can lead pibende breathing when breathing. In the extreme, closeable tract completely, and if not remedied the situation immediately, it may end with death.
Precautions and diagnosis
Mistænker Monday to be infected with the bacterium, it is important to go to the doctor immediately. He will engage him in isolation at the hospital. Caregivers will be tested for immunity to the bacterium, which even after vaccination appears to be of uncertain duration.
Consideration of diphtheria
Smittes Monday with diphtheria, it is very important as soon as possible to get antidotes and antibiotics.
In serious cases where the person has difficulty breathing, it may be necessary to lay a plastic tube into the airways (intubation) and put him in the respirator.
Select and complications
Giftstofferne, produced by the bacterium, can in some cases spread throughout the body and cause serious conditions in several of the body's major organs. This may be renal failure , Reduced function of hjernenerver, inflammation of cardiac muscle and the following cardiac arrest .
Prevention of diphtheria
In Denmark, diphtheria prevented by vaccination with børnevaccinationsprogrammet. We vaccinate at 3 -, 5 - and 12-month-old and again at 5 years of age. The vaccine keeps in some. 15-20 years.
Should we subsequently travel to a country where there is a great opportunity to get diphtheria, should be vaccinated again. Talk with your doctor before departure.
If we incur a wound by cutting or sting on a subject, will be in skadestuen both give tetanus -- And diphtheria vaccination.
If you have been infected and is better by itself, it's still important to receive antibiotics, to avoid infecting others with the disease. The reason is that this bacterium can be called to bear. This means that you bear the bacterium and can infect others, but they do not become ill by the bacterium longer.