Definition and causes
Mitralklappen sits on the left side of the heart, left between pre and left arteries. (see cardiac valve). When mitral stenosis is the flap opening narrow, so blood will find it harder to run through. This forces the heart pre to work harder to pump blood forward, and in length can be developed right sided heart failure.
By far the most common cause of mitral stenosis is past cases of rheumatic fever, which is often seen at the same time mitralinsufficiens. Of those who have had rheumatic fever, develops 65% mitral stenosis of varying severity. Rheumatic fever is rare in Denmark after the introduction of effective antibiotic treatment, but is still a major problem in developing countries. Severe narrowing of mitralklappen seen earlier than 2 years after onset of rheumatic fever, and then remain asymptomatic in the majority yet 10
Symptoms of mitral stenosis
The symptoms are primarily due to the emergence of high pressure in the lungs and includes:
- Shortness of breath, initially only by physical exertion, later also in the rest.
- Bloody opspyt.
- Fluid in the lungs or the body in general.
- Fatigue for no reason.
Frequently there are signs of right sided heart failure.
Complications of mitral stenosis
Throat of mitralklappen forcing the heart to work harder, and the heart is enlarged with time. This often leads to disturbances of heart rhythm, especially forkammerflimmer, which makes the blood is not pumped out pre suffice, which can form blood clots, which at worst can sit down in the brain (see blood clot in the brain).
DiagnosisThe diagnosis made by the doctor listens to the heart of a Stethoscope and hear a distinctive murmur. It takes an X-ray of the chest that can indicate a possible. enlarged heart, and recorded an ECG, which measures the heart electric shock and can detect any. forkammerflimmer. The diagnosis mitralinsufficiens finally made using an ultrasound examination of the heart (echocardiography), who can examine mitralklappens movements. Rarely used hjertekateterisering, where a certificate
Treatment of mitral stenosis
If mitral stenosis makes no symptoms, as noted above, the prognosis is good without any treatment. If simultaneously forkammerflimmer worsens prognosis untreated.
Medical treatment used to alleviate the symptoms. Diuretic medicines, which helps the body to excrete water and salts can be used in this trend for fluid in the lungs or the body in general. If there is forkammerflimmer given drugs that regulate heart rhythm, and given blood thinners to prevent against the increased tendency to clot.
As with other diseases in cardiac valve is a risk of bacterial endokarditis in connection with surgery and tooth extraction, so it is important to inform the doctor or dentist about the condition. Such interventions are treated with preventive antibiotics to the bacteria, which inevitably will be transferred to the blood associated with surgery, less able to book themselves to the sick heart valve.
If there are many symptoms, an operation that seeks to expand mitralklappen used. Often one does have to insert a new flap (see cardiac surgery). The elected generally a mechanical heart valve for younger patients and a biological (for example, a svineaortaklap) to the elderly. After such an operation provides lifelong blood treatment, as prevention against the increased tendency to clot caused by the artificial beach.