Definition and causes
A fracture (a fracture) is a condition in which bone is exposed to greater force than it can handle and thus harmed. Every year many people are affected by violations of various bones. The most common are the bones of the hand-led, hands, feet and toes. Other bones, hit by falling or accidents (accidents and traffic accidents, etc..) Are typically larger bones such as those in the arms, legs, hips and spine.
One can roughly divide the fracture damage in relation to the force with which the damage occurred. We are therefore talking about breaches that have occurred through the involvement of high-energy (large force as traffic accidents, etc..), Low energy (less force as sports injuries, etc.). And spontaneous fractures (generated by itself, at minimal force, mostly due to illness in the bone).
Fractures are the most frequently dealt with plaster or other treatment, which gives the bone stability and peace to grow together again. For more complex fractures, it is often necessary to operate to get the bone in the correct position again and stabilize the bone with metal wires, screws or other (see below).
However, there are many different reasons why you can get a break. The most common types of fractures, and how they arise, are as follows:
The smallest is called stress fracture fracture. These fractures are usually a result of several small kader same place (for example. Many small twist) or by repeated heavy burden, which the body is not accustomed to (f.eks.en marathon, which has increased the training intensity much). Stress fracture seen as small cracks in the bone and the bone is not broken over. Bride can be difficult to see on a conventional X-ray, and it may be necessary to make a knoglescintigrafi where a radioactive substance injected into the
DISPLACED and uforskudte fracture
Adults are not so forgive just bones as children, and therefore may be at more or less accidental fractures occur in varying degrees. If the bone after receiving a through bride still fit with the two ends, call it a uforskudt (udisloceret) fracture. With increasing age, you get reduced elasticity of the bone, and it will be at greater risk of fracture, where bone ends shifted and no longer fit together. This is called a deferred bride (disloceret).
The fracture in the bone can appear in different ways. Either run fracture line across the bone, slopping in the bone or as a spiral around the bone. There is also voids where the line goes into ledfladen, which can be serious, and later lead to the development of gout.
For some fractures break the bone so much that the two bone surfaces do not fit together (disloceret fracture). When the two bone ends shifted much, there is a risk that the bone is doing damage to muscles, blood vessels and nerves. In some cases punctured the skin of the bone, this is called an open fracture. For open fractures are at greater risk of infection with bacteria, and therefore must be treated with antibiotics right away.
Spontaneous fractures occur most frequently in older people and caused a change in bone structure so that it can not cope with the same pressures as in the past. This is typical osteoporosis, which overlap in the back (a compression of anterograde, moving forward, thereby forfeiting any height) are frequent. Spontaneous fractures can also be caused by another illness like. bone cancer, which among other things fracture in the femur bone is frequent.
Break in children
In children, there are another type of fracture, which is called agreen stickbreak. The name green stick because the children's bones can break as a fresh branch, ie. As the outer layer keeps, but before the break in. This is because the children's bones are not fully developed and has a larger volume of cartilage inside, which is more forgiveness than an adult bone. Such a breach could be seen as a small bump on the bone, or as a greater curvature.
Another type of fracture in children is a break in the bone growth zone (epifysiolyse). Growth target may by such a breach shifted, and it may be necessary to put it in place to ensure continued growth of normal bone. This often requires surgery. For major accidents, children, like adults, also incur higher dislocerede or udislocerede break (see above).
Symptoms of fractures (fractures)
The most common symptoms of a fracture is:
Unless there is a clear deformt appearance, you can have the same symptoms of a severe sprain.
Precautions and diagnosis
The vast majority of fractures occur in the context of an accident, and if you suspect that a bone is broken, you should go to the emergency room or doctor. For a thorough examination, the physician may assess whether there is a need to take an X-ray to confirm or deny the diagnosis.
In an apparent breach, will in any case take an X-ray to take a position on the treatment.
Treatment of fractures (fractures)
By fractures, the treatment depends on several things including:
Where are the breach? (hands, ankles, legs, arms, back, etc.).
What type is the breach? (transverse fractures, spiral fractures, staggered, uforskudt).
How serious is the breach? (open fracture, damage to arteries, muscles and nerves).
Depending on the above will choose between two different overall treatment principles, called conservative treatment (without surgery) or operative treatment.
When conservative treatment of a fracture, will usually choose between different types of bandages, which can immobilize the fracture in varying degrees.
Tape Ningused by small fractures of fingers and toes. Tape must not be too tight as it can place the blood flow to the area.
Support bandageis an elastic bandage, sitting in that area. It is used only by very small fracture. Support Binding is partially immobilized, but also increases the awareness around instead of a stretch. In this way, people are better able to calm themselves.
Fling or arm slingused often by violations of the upper arm bone and requirements leg. Armen hangs in the sling, and keep at rest. It is important to keep his shoulder in time, if you use the arm sling, as this is, rigid in ledkapslen.
Plaster castsused if a bride be tied up much. Gypsum put on after the construction of a small vatforbinding. It can go all the way around as under his arm, or may fall as a plaster track, where only one side plaster. Such a rail stuck with the construction of a subsequent support bandage. Depending on the fracture type and location is the processing of gypsum around. 2-6 weeks.
Some types of fractures treated only with pain medication style. An example of such a broken rib, unless there are multiple rib fractures at the same time. In the latter case will often include the person for observation.
Are the cracks bigger and require surgery can be done with internal (internal) or external (external) fixation of fracture. By internal fixation using screws and rails, a marvsøm (thick nail in the bone marrow) or metallic threads. By external fixation put some metal pins into the bone from the outside, and the merging happens to a device, attached to the pegs outside skin.
Stages and complications
Monitoring of a breach is dependent on reading. By conservatively treated bride should normally expect a period of limited activity corresponding to treatment time (typically 2-8 weeks).
Elapsed after an operation can vary considerably over time, depending on the violation type, but also the patient's age and whether there befall complications like. infection. A surgery breach need not take longer than one that can be treated conservatively.
For both conservatively and operatively treated fractures, one must reckon with a period of poor performance and stiffness in that area and a period of pain. Duration of this period is very individualized.
A complication of breach is that the bone does not grow exactly together, therefore giving error position. This can sometimes lead to a sustained reduction of functionality. Growing bone does not together, there may also arise a fibrous joints (psudoartrose), where the bone can be bent, as in other parts.
For complicated fractures, especially open, there is always a risk of infection, which in severe cases can spread to the bone. This is called osteomyelitis.
Many hospitalized, especially with fractures in the legs, are at risk of getting a blood clot in the deep veins in the leg. This seeks to prevent with blood thinners.
A serious complication of rib fractures are the rib dots hole in the lung, this is called pneumothorax At left rib bride may also be damage to the spleen, which may bleed.
For everyone who gets a break, it is that you lose muscle mass, flexibility and movement control after a period of immobilized treatment. Rehabilitation of varying nature is therefore an important treatment of a bone fracture. Children will usually have a high activity level as soon as the pain is gone and will soon be as agile as before.