Definition and causes
There are several thousand types of salmonella bacteria, the vast majority of whom exist in animals and people infected through. JustSalmonella typhi, Which gives typhoid, andSalmonella paratyphi, Which provides para typhoid, is fully menneskepatogene, ie. that the only spill from human to human. Denmark is the typicalSalmonella typhimuriumandSalmonella enteritidisgiving the stomach and intestinal infections, which are generally refers to "Salmonella".
Salmonella bacteria are frequently in domestic animals as poultry, calves and pigs, but can also be found in pets as various birds and turtles. People infected by ingesting food containing bacteria. Infection after ingestion of eggs, pork or poultry is the most common, but infection by example. not heat treated (unpasteurised) milk can also happen. Infection from person to person or from the kitchen equipment is presumed to occur but are rare. The bacteria are tarminvasiv
The bacteria is relatively hardy and can survive prolonged freezing. In contrast, is killed by the heat. Cooking or through subscription of food is therefore essential if we want to avoid infection.
It is estimated that in Denmark is about. 3000 cases of salmonella infections annually, but there may be many more, since people often do not go to the doctor with a salmonella infection. So the real figure is probably much higher.
Some infections, reminiscent of Salmonella infections caused byCampylobacter -bacteria that most commonly found in poultry (in recent years, the number of infections with Campylobacter surpassed the number of salmonella infections), and to a lesser extentYersiniabacteria that most often infects through pork.
Symptoms of salmonella infection
The symptoms occur relatively quickly after ingestion of bacteria. Usually within two days.
- Abdominal pain.
- Nausea and possible. vomiting.
- Fever up to 39 degrees.
By salmonella infections are rare in blood afførringen. This is seen more often associated with infections with Campylobacter.
Should symptoms very quickly (1-6 hours) after ingestion of a meal, it may instead be signs of a classic "food poisoning". Here are the poisons (toxins) and no salmonella bacteria in food, which gives the symptoms, the absence of fever (see article food poisoning).
Precautions and diagnosis
There are several things we ourselves can do to avoid salmonella infections:
- Good hygiene in the kitchen (clean knives and other kitchen utensils thoroughly and not use the same cutting boards for meat and vegetables).
- Thorough handwashing (before we have contact with various foods and ALWAYS after toilet visits).
- Avoid eating when you are sick or have infected wounds on hands and fingers.
- Be sure to thoroughly heated, especially meat and eggs.
- Avoid consumption of raw eggs and seafood and is not heat treated (unpasteurised) milk.
- Ensure quick cooling of foods to be stored, and avoid the stored at room temperature, to prevent multiplication of bacteria.
- Do not heat the leftovers in several stages.
- Be sure to have a sufficiently low temperature in your fridge (below five degrees).
- Always check the expiration date on foods.
You can not see, smell or taste salmonella bacteria in food, and therefore is thorough cooking and frying crucial.
In most cases, it is not necessary to consult a doctor. However, we must contact the doctor if the disease lasts more than two weeks, or if you are very included. This may be due to dehydration.
The doctor will usually make the diagnosis of medical history and symptoms (and often are more people become ill, after having taken the same food). If symptoms persist, you may need to take blood and stool samples to ensure the correct diagnosis (see also articles Gastrointestinal infections and food poisoning).
Treatment of Salmonella infections
Most salmonella infections moves by itself and requires no treatment. But when you have diarrhea and vomiting would lose large amounts of fluids and salts. It is important to make sure to replace salt and water losses, and this is the main treatment. Particularly for infants and elderly dehydration can be dangerous.
In prolonged or complicated cases may require antibiotic treatment, and the preferred product for the treatment of salmonella infections are ciprofloxacin.
Select and complications
The vast majority of salmonella infections are not serious and disappear by themselves within a few days and lasts more than two weeks. However, efforts must focus especially in cases where infants and older are infected because the infection in these patients can be fatal.
One must always be aware of dehydration. This should be suspected if there is dry mucous membranes and sparse, dark-colored urine.
Rarely can the bacteria spread through the bloodstream and settle elsewhere in the body and this cause abscesses (abscesses).
Finally,Salmonella-,Campylobacter- AndYersiniabacilli all give rise to a so-calledreactive arthritis. This is an inflammation (inflammatory reaction) in one or a few large part (eg. Knee), are seen soon after a complete infection with these bacteria.