Definition and causes
Typhus is a serious stomach and intestinal infectious disease caused by bacteriaSalmonella typhi.The bacteria entered the food elements in the intestine, and through the lymphatic system brought the bacteria into the blood and spread to various organs.
Typhus is almost always related to poor hygienic conditions. Therefore, infection most often occur from consuming water or food that is contaminated by faeces (stool) or urine residue. Another way the infection is in contact with people who either have typhoid or persons who carries the bacteria without being sick themselves.
Bacterium has been eradicated in Denmark, and typhoid fever can be considered a rare disease here at home. On an annual basis seen around. 25-50 imported cases from abroad. Globally, the disease is very frequent and occurs mainly in Africa and Asia. Here is the bacterium in some areas widespread due to poverty and unsanitary conditions.
Symptoms of typhoid
Monday infected with typhoid is the incubation period (time from infection to the development of symptoms) 10-20 days. When the bacteria spread to different agencies (primarily the gall bladder, bowel, bladder and spleen), it is with a feeling sick as blood poisoning.
The disease process are around. 4-5 weeks, and it may divide this period into 2 phases.
First stagegoods around. 1 week and the symptoms will be:
- Flu-like symptoms.
- High fever (39-40 ° C).
- Rash in the abdomen with pink areas of 2-4 mm.
- Slow pulse.
Second phasewill then start (2nd to 5.uge), and the primary symptoms will be:
- Awareness Blurred / confused.
- Still high fever.
- Worse influence of the intestine with diarrhea (which may be bloody).
- Enlarged spleens.
Since bacteria multiply rapidly in the intestine, creating cell death of some of the intestinal cells. This could at worst mean that it may be hole in the intestine and cause severe bleeding in the event of a hole in a blood vessel.
For many of the typhoid-infected, there will be an untreated improvement in the general condition and temperature drop after 4-5 weeks with the disease. By proper treatment with antibiotics can shorten the illness with typhoid fever (see reading below).
Complications of typhoid
The course of typhoid fever can be very different, both mild and serious cases. In rare cases can cause infections with typhoid bacteria in several of body organs (lungs, ears, bile times, prevent the brain, heart muscle, etc.).
The most serious complications are referred to bleeding in the gut, which can be violent, and hole in the intestine, which can quickly give a potentially fatal peritonitis (peritonitis). In Denmark, dying less than 1% of the disease, while in developing countries see a mortality rate of up to approx. 10%.
5 to 10% of those who have had typhoid fever, sheep at a time of disease flare again, and a number of the infected are known as chronic carriers. A chronic carrier of a disease could be infecting others without even to walk around and feel sick.
Precautions and diagnosis
To avoid infection should strive for good general health, if you go to an area where the bacteria is widespread. Before departure should also arrange to vaccinate (see below under prevention).
Should we get strong diarrhea symptoms during a stay abroad or after return, you should immediately seek medical attention.
The diagnosis of typhoid made by producing bacteria cultivation of both urine and faeces, and by taking a blood sample which tested for typhoid antibodies (substances produced by the immune system against typhoid bacteria).
Treatment of typhoid
The treatment of typhoid happens with antibiotics for 14 days, and after only 3-7 days, there is usually an improvement in the state. In severe disease and large quantities of diarrhea lose much body fluid. It is therefore necessary to establish the person's fluid and salt balance.
The people who are infected without being sick (media), may still infecting others people. To eradicate the bacteria from these people, they must be treated with antibiotics for 3-4 weeks.
At the hospital hospitalized person in an isolation unit to prevent the spread of the disease.
Prevention of typhoid
When traveling to countries where there is a great opportunity to get typhoid, should, in addition to complying with the above measures, arrange to vaccinate before departure. Vaccination can either be in pill form or as an injection into a muscle. Vaccination does not provide complete protection (50-75%) and lasts for 3 years.
By improving health and education conditions in areas where the bacterium can be found, you can reduce the number of people infected dramatically.