Definition and causes
Interstitielle lung diseases are a group of diseases where there are changes in lungernes interstitial tissue. This tissue is made up of cells in luftblærerne and small tanks, which will run in them and connective tissue between luftblærerne (see Lungerne and airways ).
The reason for the changes is an inflammatory condition that makes the wall in luftblærerne fortykkes. This will make it more difficult to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. Often, there are also changes in other parts of the lungs, ie. bronchi, blood vessels and lungehinder. (see also Lungerne and airways ).
It is estimated that several hundred people in Denmark, suffers from interstitial lung diseases. There are many different types of interstitial lung disease, and they are divided on what caused the disease. The disease can be caused by:
- Stay for example. asbestos (see støvlunger ), Carbon dust, fungi in mouldy hay, certain forms of medicine, X-rays and long-term administration of oxygen.
- Infections with certain viruses, and a special bacterium called pneumocyste, often seen by AIDS .
In addition, interstitial lung disease seen by miliær tuberculosis .
- Bindevævssygdomme as scleroderma , systemic lupus erythematosus , RA or sarcoidosis .
- Cancer of the lung .
- Unknown cause. A particular disease including the idiopathic lungefibrose, which is the most frequent form of interstitial lung disease.
Symptoms of interstitial lung disease
- Dry cough.
- Increasing tend to be winded, in the beginning only of effort but later by very small load or at rest.
- Blåfarvning of the skin (called cyanosis) as an expression of lack of oxygen in the blood.
- Trommestikfingre and urglas-nails: This means that the outer part of the fingers is wider, and nails are large and vaulted. This is seen after a long time with the lack of oxygen in the blood.
Precautions and diagnosis
If you have been exposed to asbestos, coal or other lungeirriterende small particles, or suffering from a disease that may cause interstitial lung disease, should be extra attention on the development of the above symptoms. If you do that, you should seek out his own doctor or the doctor, we are dealing with.
The diagnosis made by producing a series of studies:
- Lungefunktionsundersøgelse: You have to breathe here in a tube that is connected to a machine. There is measured, among other things, how much air you can breathe out during the first second (FEV1), and how much you can breathe out in total (FVC). The relationship between FEV1 and FVC is usually normal or increased by interstitial lung diseases.
- Pulsoximetri during exertion:On a finger to a meter (a pulsoximeter), which measure iltmætningen in the blood, while bicycles on a kondicykel. Typically iltmætningen will fall if you have interstitial lung disease.
- Røntgenbillede of the lungs:There is typically diffuse changes in lungevævet.
- CT-scanshows the spread of disease very precise, and one can distinguish between old and new changes.
- Bronkoskopi: This is a study in which you look down into the bronchial tubes with a special telescope.
Treatment of interstitial lung diseases
The treatment depends on what triggered the interstitial lung disease. If the disease is part of a connective, you can provide medicine, which inhibit the immune system. After long illness, it may be necessary that the person is constantly given an extra ilttilskud through a mask or through the nose. The only way to cure the disease is a lungetransplantation, but this can rarely be done in practice.
Select and complications
It is different, how the various forms of interstitial lung disease develops. In some forms, such as. idiopathic lungefibrose, lung function can be bad very quickly, which will ultimately lead to death. For other types, there will be only facilitate the genes in the form of cough and breathing difficulties.