Definition and causes
Glomerulonephritis represents an inflammation of the microscopic structures in the kidneys, the blood is filtered (glomeruli). The disease exists in both a sudden (acute) form and an over months or years developed persistent (chronic) form. The disease is rare, is diagnosed annually around. 200 new cases in Denmark.
Kidneys have many functions and vital organs. Most importantly ensure that all the time to filter the blood and excrete waste and to regulate the body's fluid and salt balance - all by producing urine.
By Glomerulonephritis affected filtrationen, so that not only waste but also important proteins (egg white substances) and blood cells can pass into the urine. The disease occurs in all degrees from very mild to very severe, which may occur more or less permanent kidney damage with kidney failure to follow.
Glomerulonephritis can have several different causes. In Denmark is the most knownautoimmune reactionIn which the immune system's antibodies, which normally fights infections, instead deposited in or directly attacking the kidneys and causes an inflammatory reaction. This happens occasionally after infection elsewhere in the body, especially sore throat with streptococci bacteria. Persons who suffer from other autoimmune diseases, for example. Lupus (SLE) are at increased risk for Glomerulonephritis.
The reason may also be a virus (eg. Infectious mononucleosis), widespread tissue diseases, cancer or parasitic diseases like malaria in the tropics.
Symptoms of Glomerulonephritis
The symptoms depend on the degree of disease. AChronicGlomerulonephritisoften have few or no symptoms before the emergence of permanent kidney damage. The chronic disease can also start with a case ofacuteGlomerulonephritis, Which typically have symptoms in the form of frequent urination and dark and / or strongly foaming urine. In addition, symptoms occur frequently in some degree of kidney failure.
Symptoms of kidney failure can be seen as strongly decreased urine output (less than 400 ml in the day). Furthermore, fatigue, madlede, nausea and vomiting due to accumulated waste. Accumulation of fluid in the lungs give shortness of breath. See also acute renal failure and chronic renal failure.
Complications of Glomerulonephritis
Glomerulonephritis in addition to kidney failure can give anemia and high blood pressure, which is a serious complication that can further impair kidney function and require treatment. If large amounts of protein are lost in the urine, resulting in a series of symptoms that collectively known as nephrotic syndrome, this is seen particularly in children.
Precautions and diagnosis
Get symptoms of Glomerulonephritis, you should immediately seek medical attention. The diagnosis made by a major investigation, which initially consists of blood and urine tests that can determine whether there is a disease of the kidney. Then the other, with example. X-rays of the kidneys and urinary tract after injection of contrasting color into the bloodstream (urografi) and possibly. a tissue of the kidney (biopsy). The latter taken with a hollow needle through the skin.
Treatment and course of Glomerulonephritis
Although Glomerulonephritis can be serious, the most acute cases are treated with simple bed rental, a special diet and treatment of the symptoms. For example. given Diuretics by shortness of breath, to drain fluid from the lungs. Often directed mode after 1-2 weeks.
By aggressive Glomerulonephritis used specialized medical treatment with different agents that suppress the immune system and thus its attacks on the kidneys. Moreover treated kidney failure, as described below Acute kidney failure and chronic renal failure.
If Glomerulonephritis has caused high blood pressure, this is always treated with special medication, which can help prevent loss of kidney function.
This article is formed on the Health Guide on 02.08.06