Definition and causes
Astmatisk bronchitis is a disease with episodes of vejrtræningsbesvær triggered by a viral infection in the small lower respiratory tract (small bronchus and bronkioler ). Astmatisk bronchitis is the most in 2 to 12 months of age, but is also seen in older children. The most common cause until 4 to 5 years of age, Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but also influenza and parainfluenzavirus is a frequent cause. After 4-5 years of age are the major causes Rhinovirus (forkølelesesvirus) and the bacterium Mycoplasma Pneumoniae.
Infection triggers a betændelsesreaktion (inflammation) in the mucous membranes, which takes up so there is less room for luftpassage through the small airways. At the same time, it is felt that muscular in the small airways to pull more together than usual, which further reduces the space. The result is a lot of resistance luftpassage which means that the air trapped in lungernes alveoler (see Lungerne ). This makes the lungs inflated, and this udspiling can afklemme the larger tract, so it is even harder to get the air out of the lungs again. The result is a vicious circle in which more and more air trapped in alveoler and the small airways, leading to increasing difficulty to breathe.
Astmatisk bronchitis should not be confused with real asthma Where vejrtrækningsbesværet not due to an infection. Astmatisk bronchitis can be of some, however, prove to be the first sign of the development of astmasygdom.
Symptoms of Asthmatic bronchitis
- The symptoms debuterer withfever, forkøleleseandcough.
- After a few days developedvejrtrækningsbeværwith fast, wheezing. Hvæsen heard particularly during expiration. It is characteristic that the person finds it difficult to breathe the air out of the lungs and not breathing. In large vejrtrækningsarbejde we can see that næsefløjene vibrates, and that during inhalation come indentations (indtrækninger) between and under the ribs. Thorax may be more bloated than normal.
- At the very heavy breathing child will be turbulent and fear. It may have blåfarvning of lips and neglelejer as an expression of poor oxygenation of the blood. In addition, the child will be growing sløvt.
- Some children are totally unaffected and continue normal activities such as play, despite pronounced wheezing. These are calledhappy wheezers.
Precautions and diagnosis
All children with breathing difficulties should be assessed by a doctor, like all children under ½ years with a fever should be evaluated by a doctor.
The diagnosis Asthmatic bronchitis brought on sygehistorien and examination of the child. It will most often choose to engage in børneafdeling for observation and treatment. Here, take X-ray of the lungs and blood tests to rule out bacterial infection (see Pneumonia in children ).
RSV demonstrated by examination of secrete sucked from the nose-throat. The concentration of acid and base in the blood will tell how well the patient breathing and can be measured in a blood sample, which can be taken after a dot in the skin on the heel. Bypulsoxymetriyou can measure how well the blood is oxygenated. This is done with a sensor on the skin, which does not cause discomfort.
Consideration of Asthmatic bronchitis
- Sufficient væsketilførsel prevent dehydration, which can easily occur in young children with fever and rapid breathing.
- Ilttilskud on the mask or næsekateter.
- Luftvejsudvidende medicine is inhaled (a Beta2-agonist like. Bricanyl or Ventoline) to facilitate breathing.
- Inhalation of binyrebarkhormon (steroid) reduces the enforcement of mucous membranes, but achieved only after a few hours. In many cases of Asthmatic bronchitis can give a longer cure the inhalationerne continued in ½ years to prevent relapse.
- Respiratorbehandling: Especially very young children can udtrættes, so the short to have help of a respirator to breathe.
Select and complications
The forecast for each episode of Asthmatic bronchitis is good, but there is a high tendency for the children again have the Asthmatic bronchitis during the next year. Approximately 1 / 3 of children with Asthmatic bronchitis proves later to have asthma , But this diagnosis can only be made when there have been repeated episodes of breathing difficulties without fever.