Definition and causes
Jaundice is common in infants in the first of life. It can be seen in at least one third of all newborns and is more often in prematurely born. Jaundice is characterised by the skin and eyes have a yellowish color. This is because the newborn has an increased volume of substancebilirubin(a natural degradation product of red blood cells) which are normally filtered from the liver and excreted from the intestines of the bile (see also Jaundice ).
This includesphysiologicaljaundice and jaundice for other reasons. The so-calledphysiologicaljaundice, which is the most common of the newborn, may almost be regarded as normal. The reason is that the newborn babies living is immature and has a small capacity to absorb and excrete bilirubinet. This means an increased volume of blood and thus the yellow color.
If the mother's immune system has formed antibodies that react and destroy the fetus red blood cells (haemolysis), there will be a surplus of bilirubin in fosterblodet with consequent severe jaundice at birth (see Rhesus-reaction of the fetus ).
Native malformations in galdevejene are rare (see Atresi in galdegangene ), But nevertheless they can lead to liver can not dispose of bilirubinet to bile. That makes bilirubinet accumulate in the liver and blood with severe jaundice as a result. Other reasons may be infections (including hepatitis and urinary tract infections). Reduced activity in the thyroid gland can also lead to jaundice.
Symptoms of jaundice of the newborn
Regardless of the reason is characterized by jaundice, that the whites of the eyes and skin takes on a yellowish color.
Physiology jaundice begin on the nose, spread over the body of 2.-4. day, peaking at 7. day and disappear around. after 14 days from the normally developed newborns.
Jaundice obtained as a result ofhaemolysisis already the first days after birth, while jaundice duemalformations in galdevejenefirst make themselves after the 1-2 weeks.
Kendetegnende of non-physiological jaundice is that there is a gradual deterioration in the colour of the child, in contrast to the physiological jaundice which usually faded.
Complications of jaundice of the newborn
In severe jaundice can the level of bilirubin in the blood become so high that it gets through to the brain and brain damage, convulsions and coma. This is, however, almost never, because the child usually controlled and come under consideration.
When galdevejene is deformed, accumulate bilirubinen and bile in the liver and can at worst give severe liver and be dangerous, if not treated.
Treatment of jaundice in newborns
Physiology jaundice rarely require any treatment. Blue or blue-green light may make bilirubinet water soluble, so it can be excreted in the urine. It is used by light to moderate jaundice and is aware that the child is illustrated in an incubator or lyskasse in about 2 days. Severe forms of jaundice can be treated by that changing the child's blood through a blood transfusion. If gulsoten caused deformities in galdevejene, required an operation.