Last updated:09-05-2008
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Definition and causes

The heart is a complex body, and the normal development of it is also a complex case in which a multiplicity of factors must fit together to form the complete heart. Sometimes it goes wrong in a greater or lesser extent, and the heart is defective built to carry a life's work.

Native heart failure occurs more frequently than other malformations of the newborn. In fact, it's 8 in 1000 live births, which are born with a hjertemisdannelse. Not all anomalies require treatment, as most are in themselves. However, there are quite critical heart failure, regardless of the treatment ends with death.

The reasons for the many different hjertemisdannelser are broadly similar. There are hereditary conditions in up to 10% of misdannelserne (eg. Downs syndrome ), While a few percentage may be due to maternal intake of certain medicintyper or alcohol and other environmental factors such as infections (particularly rubella during pregnancy ). Up to 85% of misdannelserne have a combined genetic and environmental causes.

Symptoms of congenital heart disease

Less congenital heart disease which is usually no genes. When symptoms arise from a congenital malformation, depends on the severity of misdannelsernes and type. But with the exception of all hjertemisdannelser that is:

  • Breathing difficulties, and therefore great difficulties madning.
  • Slow weight gain and growth (poor well-being).

The symptoms can occur suddenly after birth, later in childhood or early adulthood. Very often mixed the blood uiltede (veneblod) with blood (arterieblod) in the heart because of misdannelsen. This means that the heart pumps less blood around the body, which means that the child is blålige lips, tongue and skin (called cyanosis), which is a serious symptom.

Complications of congenital heart disease

The child can develop heart failure because of misdannelsen, with the different hjertearbejde do that in the long run can not maintain blood pressure and blood flow of the body's major organs. Cardiac failure in children have the following symptoms:

  • Fast breathing with indtrækninger Chest and suttebesvær.

  • Short meals on the grounds that the child will be exhausted.

  • Poor well-being.

  • Kølige hands and feet, possible svedige.

  • Palpitations.

  • Swelling of the legs (late symptom).

  • Cyanose.

Children have an increased risk of getting infections, and after years of heart disease have permanent lung damage.


Misdannelserne can be diagnosed before birth by means of routine ultrasound of the pregnant. You can sometimes find a birth defect, but it is far from all cases are discovered.

Misdannelserne being detected after birth if the newborn is already showing symptoms, or under rutineundersøgelsen. Doctors can by listening to the heart hear a sound (mislyd), which may be indicative of a birth defect. However it should be pointed that a mislyd not necessarily mean that the child fails anything. The doctor takes as a ECG That can tell whether there is a disturbance of the electrical activity of the heart. Røntgen Chest is to show the heart and lungernes shape and size. There may also be an echocardiography (a ultralydsundersøgelse where you can see heart movement and structure).

It may be necessary before any. operation, to make a so-calledhjertekateterisation. There is a flexible tube through a vein (vein) or an artery (artery), usually through lysken up to the heart. We can directly measure the pressure, take blood samples and syringe røntgenstof sign in to see the blood moving through the heart (angiokardiografi).

Treatment of congenital heart disease

Most hjertemisdannelser is in itself without treatment. About a third have a need for an operation to correct the error. We are waiting usually with the operation, the child will be more resistant to a major surgical operation, the older it is. Rarely, it may be necessary to make an urgent intervention to save the child's life. With the new modern operationsteknikker with regard to hjertetransplantation, it is possible to save many children with deformities. However, it is difficult to


The forecast depends heavily on hjertefejlens difficulty and the complications that may be present. Most malformations courts themselves, and after the operation with the latest operationsteknikker, even hard hit children lead a normal and active life.




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Fallots tetrade (Steno-Fallots tetralogi)
Inborn aortastenose
Inborn gap between the two forkamre (Atrieseptumdefekt, ASD)
Inborn gap between the two hjertekamre (Ventrikelseptumdefekt, VSD)
Inborn heart failure
Inborn pulmonalstenose
Open ductus arteriosus (persistent ductus arteriosus, PDA)
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