Definition and cause
If there is damage on the inside of a blood vessel can be deposited fat in karvæggen. The uneven surface of the tank makes blood platelets and red blood cells lumps later settled here. They provide atricyclic. Its process is called in English arteriosclerosis.
What happens is that trigger or parts of it, tear themselves loose, formed aembolus. This can be conducted with the blood out to smaller arteries, where it can sit flat and form a so-calledembolism. Embolism would cause a closing of oxygen supply to the tissues, arteries supplying, and this will take some time to land. Lack of oxygen in a tissue called ischemia, and when the tissue dies due to lack of oxygen (ischemia), it is called an infarct cases.
For standing blood can also clot together. There is therefore not unusual embolism in connection with hjerteforkammerflimmer where the blood stands for quiet in the heart.
The vast majority løsrevede thrombotic embolism caused by arteriosclerosis or heart rhythm error, but an embolus can be of any material. Other forms of embolism:
- Fedtembolier. Can be seen after the fracture, where a fat bead from the bone marrow end up in the bloodstream.
- Bacterial embolism:When bacteria in cardiac valve (bacterial endokarditis, a bacterial Tearing itself loose clump.
- Luftembolier: Can be viewed by particular sick in diving, where liquid gases dissolved in the blood goes on gas, forming bubbles in the blood.
- Cancerembolier: For some cancers can spread small pieces of tumor to the bloodstream.
Many bodies have blood supply from several arteries (arteries), so if there is a closing of the main artery, the smaller arteries (so-calledcollateral) To some extent over hovedarteriens function.
Many embolism precursor therefore without ever being detected.
The collateral arteries in the heart especially, but also in the kidneys and many places in the brain, is very small and inadequate. An embolism in these bodies is often the more serious nature than in other organs.
The severity of an embolism depends simultaneously on how much embolism is, in other words. how much the tub enclosures. The most organs, which embolism occurs, the legs, brain, intestine, kidney, lungs and heart.
Symptoms of arterial embolism
In many of the internal organs may be a small embolism easily occur without it noted. Depending on location can give an embolism following symptoms:
- The legs: Through the might happen in the artery in the groin, in the thigh, or possibly in knæhasen. further out. There arises intense pain, paleness, feeling reduction, power reduction and the pulse disappears.
- Brain: An embolism in the brain would give a stroke, also known as stroke. In some cases, a small blood clot dissolved again, and the symptoms can disappear within about. 24 hours. This symptom is called transient cerebral ischemia (TCI)
- Intestine: Guts supplied by three arteries, and usually will be first developed problems when two of the three arteries are sealed. The pain occurs after food intake, and people with intestinal ischemia lose themselves often much weight. If there are acute complete closing of ilttilførelsen, can be compared with great pain to vomiting, diarrhea and bleeding from the anus. The disease can develop signs of peritonitis, and the condition is very serious.
- Kidneys: Since you have two kidneys, an embolism in one nyrearterie not give a total kidney failure, but failure of one kidney (see kidney failure. Nyren will respond to iltmanglen through hormones that raise blood pressure, hoping to receive more blood . With less quick operation is possible, the kidney would go to land.
- Lungs: Pulmonary embolism often comes from the deep veins of thrombotic events (DVT) or because of a forkammerflimmer in right hjerteforkammer. See article on pulmonary embolism.
- The heart: An embolism in their coronary arteries are not as frequent as a trigger in place for these vessels, but both lead to a heart attack and coronary disease. An embolism from somewhere else in the body will prove emergency, and there would not have been possible. precedents with heart spasms, as illustrated by thrombotic.
Precautions and diagnosis
As far as possible to prevent arterial embolism, it is important to follow the precautions outlined in arteriosclerosis.
Have we diabetes (diabetes), it is important to pay extra attention to their blood pressure (see High blood pressure) and signs of arteriosclerosis.
Read more in "The prevention of arteriosclerosis."
The diagnosis is made mostly of the typical disease picture. Depending on location, there are different survey methods, which doctors can use to detect an arterial embolism.
Treatment of arterial embolism
So far as is possible, will seek to bring back oxygen supply to the exposed organ or tissue.
Depending on how embolism sits, will start up with medical or surgical treatment.
If embolism can not be achieved surgically, gives blodpropsopløsende drugs (thrombolysis) to dissolve lumps. In order to prevent blood clots grow further, given that while blood thinners.
In many places it is now possible to make a so-calledembolektomi, Which through an artery (usually in the groin) introduces a thin tube (a balloon catheter), with which it is possible to remove embolism.
Another surgical solution is a by-pass operation, which uses another piece of vein (either vein or artery) to drive the blood through the round.
Select and diagnosis
For embolism in most tissues in question, if it succeeds in reopening the tank, and thereby restoring blood flow within about. 6 hours, there is a good chance to avoid lasting damage.
Complications of different embolism
- The legs: If not manage to get blood to the leg within about. six hours, my leg will begin to go to the land. It will be blue, and there may be dry gangræn the leg mummified remains black. If smaller parts as mummified toes, these will automatically fall. Amputation is required by major injuries.
- Brain: Is the body that are most difficult to treat, and where embolism can have some of the most serious consequences. There will develop a stroke.
- Intestine: Since tarmembolier with completely closing the blood supply to the intestine is relatively rare, and many other frequent tarmsygdomme gives similar symptoms, suspected tarmiskæmi unfortunately often too late. Going for the gut reasons, it is a very serious condition, which without rapid surgical intervention leads to death.
- Kidneys: There are unilateral acute renal failure, and one kidney is destroyed without rapid intervention.
- Lungs: Depends on the size embolism. Many never discovered pulmonary embolism due to their small size. In the worst cases, a so-called saddelemboli become lodged and block the two major lung arteries, this leads to rapid death.
- The heart: An embolism will result in a myocardial infarction, with less rapid surgery. When large blood clots can Death occur right away.