Definition and causes
Plasmaceller, which is a type of white blood cells are created out of B-lymphocytes (other white blood cells) as a response to an infection. Then plasmacellerne produce antibodies that help the immune system to fight an infection of the same type in the future. Myelomatose is a rare cancer in which bone marrow is an uncontrolled overproduction of abnormal plasma. This is a specific type plasmacelle, which produce large quantities of one type of antibody which ikk
We do not know the cause of multiple myeloma, but there are greater frequency of the disease in the people who were exposed to radiation in relation to atombombningen of Japan under 2. World War II. This suggests that radiation could be a reason.
Myelomatose may be limited to a single bone, or take place anywhere in the red bone marrow and thereby framework of the body's bones at the same time. The growth of the cells will press on the bones, which starts degradation of the bone. This leads to thin bones with high risk of fracture. The disease can also be located in restricted areas outside the red bone marrow.
In multiple myeloma will be formed in the bone marrow as many plasma that the formation of other cell types as platelets (platelet) and red blood cells (erythrocytes) will be displaced. This can lead to mangeltilstande as thrombocytopenia and anaemia .
Myelomatose can develop into Leukemia (blood cancer), where more than a certain number of the abnormal plasma in the blood.
The disease is rare. About 250 Danes affected every year by the disease, and it is on average about. 70 years when the disease is diagnosed. Only 15% are under 60 years old.
Symptoms of bone marrow
Since cellevæksten place in the bone marrow, and the crowd its surroundings, the symptoms typically appear in the bone. Since the formation of other types of cells are suppressed in the bone marrow, there will also prove symptoms due to their lack of blood. Parts of the overproducerede antibody can be deposited in the kidneys and urinary complications.
Typical symptoms are:
- Bone pain, often in the back, pelvis, ribs, overarms and lårbensknogle.
- Spontaneous fractures, including in the backbone, which may give føleforstyrrelser especially in the legs.
- Symptoms of anaemia (anaemia), such as paleness, fatigue and headache.
- Reduced renal function. Blood in the urine.
- Fever and frequent infections.
- Increased bleeding tendency (see bleeding ).
Precautions and diagnosis
The disease is rare and affects people around age 70. Are you over 50 years and has bone pain, especially in the back, and one or more of the above symptoms, you must be seen by a doctor. The disease can in rare cases also be seen in the 30 to 40 years of age.
The disease can be diagnosed by taking blood samples, including by determine the specific antibody, which will be overproduceret. Also examined the urine for residues of the antibody. In addition, a knoglemarvsundersøgelse contribute to the diagnosis and taking the X-rays to assess the thickness of the bones.
We will try to inhibit overproduction of plasmacellene by giving binyrebarkhormon (eg. Prednisolone) and the combination of chemotherapy.
Knoglesmerterne can lindres by strålebehandle locally on the bones, which hurts. Also used normal pain killer. In order to prevent the degradation of the bone is given a substance that inhibits this.
If you are younger, a bone marrow help of the disease.
Anæmien (blodmanglen) can be treated by indspøjtning of erytropoietin (Epo) and by giving blood .
Infections are treated with antibiotics.
Select and complications
The forecast is poor and dependent on the stage of the disease by diagnosetidspunktet and the extent to which, inter alia, develop anemia and renal insufficiency. The earlier you get the disease diagnosed, the better the prognosis.