Definition and causes
Typically, anaemia is not due to a blood disease, but will be secondary to another disease. Secondary anaemia varies widely from mild to severe anaemia, and by the easy form will be anæmien often overlooked, as it focuses on the primary disease. Mangeltilstande as iron , folin and vitamin B12 deficiency do not count in the secondary anæmier. Secondary anaemia can only be cured if you get treated the primary disease.
Examples of secondary anaemia:
- Anemia of chronic disease (AKS or infektionsanæmi).
- Anemia by kidney disease.
- Anemia by diseases of the metabolism.
- Anemia by diseases of the liver.
- Anemia by indvækst or penetration of malignant cells in bone marrow (usually blood).
Anaemia, which originate from chronic diseases, are often chronic inflammatory conditions (inflammatory), infections and certain cancer. At the same time there are changes in jernstoftskiftet, which differs from the changes, seen by jernmangelanæmi .
After jernmangelanæmi AKS is the most anæmiform in Denmark.
Anæmien due on March 3 characteristic mechanisms:
- Slightly reduced the life of the red blood cells.
- Reduced formation of red blood cells.
- Reduced jerntilbud the formation of red blood cells.
In particular, reduced the formation of red blood cells are frequent cause of development of AKS. By the above chronic diseases excreted in the body a number of substances which have the effect of inhibiting the formation of red blood cells.
Anemia by kidney disease
Erytropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that stimulates production of red blood cells in bone marrow. EPO is produced in the kidneys, and this production will be reduced by many different diseases of the kidneys, such as. chronic renal failure .
You can artificially produce EPO in the laboratory and inject it into the body as a substitute for the lack of natural production in the kidneys and thus treat anæmien. EPO injection helps only on the formation of red blood cells, if the underlying disease is associated with kidney and a reduced EPO production.
Anemia by diseases of the metabolism
The most common disease of the metabolism, which leads to anaemia is hypothyroidism , And this is seen more frequently in men than women. There can also be seen by anaemia hypofyseinsufficiens .
Anemia by liver
Typically seen anaemia by severe cases of liver cirrhosis (cirrhosis). Skrumpelever will lead to a blodtrykstigning in the blood vessels that surround the liver, which can result in an explosion of the tank and, for example. cause great bleeding in the digestive tract . Leversygdomme may also be important for the formation of abnormal forms of red blood cells, which have impaired ability to bind oxygen.
Anemia by knoglemarvspåvirkning
The red blood cells are formed in the bone marrow, and a disturbance. in terms of penetration of cancer can interfere with this formation. Similarly, blood disorders of the bone marrow have the effect of inhibiting the production of red blood cells. Anæmien can in this case is due to many causes and has complex linkages (see leukaemia)
Symptoms of secondary anaemia
The symptoms are the usual anæmisymptomer And the level may vary widely and depends on the underlying disease.
Treatment of secondary anaemia
At the secondary anaemia, it is important to have treated the disease, which is based anæmien. Since it often involves the easy cases of anaemia, will Monday after examining the primary disease not see the symptoms of anemia, and it is not necessary to undertake treatment for anaemia.
The kidney disease can be treated with EPO (see below anaemia by kidney disease), and by moderate to severe cases of anemia may be given blood .