Last updated:09-05-2008
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Definition and causes

They red cellular components normal life is 120 days, and if this shortened life span, there is talk of a hemolytic condition. Can the red bone marrow does not provide enough new red blood cells to compensate, and there anaemia (anaemia), talks about hemolytic anemia.

Hæmolytisk anaemia divided into 2 divisions. In one group are the causes hereditære (congenital legacy), and in the second group are the causes acquired later in life.

Hereditære reasons:

  • When there is a defect formation of hemoglobin , Which is the ilttransporterende substance in the blood. This is seen by sickle cell anaemia and thalassæmi .

  • The error in enzymes in the red blood cells. This leads to a modified form of the red blood cells, and those destroyed in the spleen.

  • Defekter in the wall of the red blood cells. This is seen by sfærocytose, where the red blood corpuscle lose its natural form and become round. Then difficult passage through the spleen, leading to an increased destruction.

Acquired causes

  • This is typically when immunhæmolyser in which the body's immune system reacts by breaking down red blood cells. This type of haemolysis may be in a form in which the body's immune system creates antibodies to the foreign blood cells. This is seen, for example. by a Rhesus-reaction of the fetus and by complications related to the blood . The second form of Immunological seen when the body forms antibodies against its own red blood cells, which starts a degradation. This is visible in by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and systemic lupus erythematosis .

  • Certain types of medication can contribute to the Immunological. For example. by treatment with high, prednisolone (binyrebarkhormon).

  • By toxic or external influences such as Malaria , Freezing, burns, drowning and slangegift.

  • The mechanical influences as evidenced by the destruction of red blood cells in the artificial heart valves .

In Denmark, the 3 most common forms of hemolytic anemia: Immunological that generate antibodies against its own cells, sfærocytose and destruction of red blood cells in the spleen by malignant (virulent) blood disorders.


  • There is the general anæmisymptomer And there is often concurrent symptoms of the underlying disease.

  • Icterus (jaundice) and gallstones are often, as there will be released very bilirubin by destruction of red blood cells.

  • Furthermore, signs of wounds on underbenene and bone pain. At times there malformation of the bones (see thalassæmi).

Precautions and diagnosis

Is there evidence of the above symptoms, or even a family member with hemolytic anemia, which is congenital, should seek medical attention. If you are under medical treatment for another illness, and developing signs of jaundice or anemia, one should also consult a doctor with the same.

By taking a blood test can detect whether there is hemolytic anemia. Should we differentiate between the different causes of the hæmolytiske anaemia, used a number of specific investigations, including by meter enzymindholdet in the red blood cells and DNA type.


Before treatment begins, it is important that we find the underlying disease, which is the cause of the hæmolytiske anaemia. Then you go after targeted to treat grundsygdommen. If this is not sufficient, and anæmien continues, we can deal with blood.

For certain types of Immunological, which does not move by itself, can be treated with binyrebarkhormon.

In severe cases, hemolytic anemia, where most of the red blood cells are destroyed in the spleen, is the removal of the spleen sometimes the only symptomlindrende solution.






Related articles:

Anaemia (Anemia)
Anemia caused by lack of vitamin B12 or folic acid (including pernicious anaemia)
Hæmolytisk anaemia (Anaemia due to degradation of the red blood cell)
Jernmangelanæmi (Anaemia sideropenica)
Secondary anaemia (anaemia due to primary disease)
Seglcelleanæmi (Anaemia due seglcellesygdom)
Thalassæmi (including Cooleys anemia)



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