Definition and causes
Hemoglobin is the oxygen-and kuldioxidtransporterende substance in the red blood cells, where iron is an important component. In the event that there are sufficient quantities of iron in the body, which formed less hemoglobin, which leads to anaemia (anaemia). Jernmangelanæmi is the 2. most mangeltilstand in the world after kaloriemangel.
In the body, found 70% of the iron as hemoglobin and the rest is distributed in depots in the liver, spleen and the red bone marrow. When the red blood cells are broken down after the end of life, transported to the haemoglobin the red bone marrow , Where it is recycled to form new red blood cells. So losing it is generally not so much iron, and you do under normal circumstances not to take additional jernpiller.
In Denmark jernmangelanæmi is a very frequent form and it shows in 3-5% of fertile women (see heavy menstrual periods ) And at 1-2% with the other adults. In certain diseases and conditions are jernreserven in the body small, resulting jernmangelanæmi. This can have the following reasons:
- Inadequate intake of iron. This could have repercussions at the conditions in which the body grows much and need extra iron. This is seen particularly in children is growing rapidly (see iron deficiency in children ), And in pregnant women especially in 2. and 3. trimester (see anaemia during pregnancy ). In addition, there are often jernmangelanæmi in older people with poor diets.
- Is often a renewable bleeding That can come from suffering in the gastrointestinal tract, such as ulcers , hæmoroider or strong menstruationer . Jernmanglen occurs because of the bleeding, and blødningskilden be located. The major external bleeding is also seen jerntab, but this may soon be replaced again by blood . Bloddonorer may, in a collection experience iron deficiency.
- At various tarmsygdomme reduced jernoptagelsen in the gut. This may be the case in which parts of the intestine was removed, by coeliac disease or cancer of the intestinal tract .
Symptoms of jernmangelanæmi
- There are the usual anaemia -- symptoms as pallor, dizziness, headache and fatigue.
- Other genes from the mucous membranes, in the form of red, smooth and heavy burning, irritated lips and cracks in the mundvigene.
- There are decreased appetite and difficulty swallowing.
- Women can develop menstrual disorder.
Precautions and diagnosis
If you have symptoms of anaemia, one should consult a doctor to get diagnosed the underlying cause of blodmanglen. It is important that we do not even try to treat the disease with jernpiller, as this could hide a sustained bleeding, the cause of anæmien.
The diagnosis made in most cases by taking a blood test, which measures the blood levels of hemoglobin, iron and various proteins that carry and store iron. In case of doubt may be supplemented by a knoglemarvsbiopsi , Which examines the bone marrow content of iron. If a suspected bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, it may be necessary to make a kikkertundersøgelse of the stomach or colon.
Consideration of jernmangelanæmi
In mild forms of iron deficiency, and when we have demonstrated that there is not an internal bleeding, we can ensure sufficient jernindtag by eating ferrous food such as meat, liver, spinach and fuldkornsbrød.
Women in puberty, pregnancy in 2. or 3. trimester, in amningsfasen, or if you have repeated severe menstruationer, can supplement their diet with jernpiller. It is important that we take them over a long period to ensure that similar jerndepoter will be filled up. This treatment must be carried out after the doctor's recommendations.
By jernmangelanæmi, which is not due to insufficient intake of iron, you need to find the underlying disease. Is it a disease that requires surgery, a blood transfusion before the operation to remedy anæmien. If it is a condition that can not be improved by surgery, can be given repeated blood transfusions. In this case, jernpilletilskud not necessary because a blood contains large amounts of iron.
Select and complications
The forecast for jernmangelanæmi as a result of too little jernindtag through food is usually good, because we can supplement the diet with jernpiller. By the excessive intake of jernpiller may be constipation of the intestines, black stools, unpleasant feeling in the upper abdominal and in children of black colour of teeth.
Is jernmanglen a sustained bleeding, for example, a stomach ulcer, is forecast also good. In rare cases, the underlying disease is not treated, and you choose to provide sustained blood to avoid jernmangelanæmi.
Prevention of jernmangelanæmi
By ensuring a balanced diet, which consists of large amounts of meat, liver, spinach and fuldkornsbrød, we can prevent a jernmangelanæmi caused by too little jernindtag.
Pregnant women in the middle and last trimester have a large iron and it is recommended by the Health, to pregnant women from 20. gestational dietary supplements with jerntilskud.
By repeatedly menstruationer strong and rapid growth during puberty may be necessary jerntilskud.