Definition and reason
Cold is a common term for mild disease of the airways, caused by the virus. There are over 200 different viruses that may cause colds. Virus recorded in the nose and throat, and gives an infection of the mucous membranes. In some cases the virus can give inflammation of struben or in the lower respiratory tract (see Acute tranquilizer and pneumonia ).
Viruses can sometimes weaken the body's immune system, and thus provide a way for the much more difficult bacterial infections, for example. throat, middle ear or lungs.
Cold is the most prevalent illness in the community. Virus spreads by kontaktsmitte, where the virus transmitted from hand to hand. The subsequent infect mucous membranes, when the hand is brought to mouth or nose. Viruses can also be transmitted by inhalation of virus particles from a cough or from a newly infected.
When one has been infected with a virus to develop immunity against this virus. Because there are many different viruses, and moving mutations in the virus, you will see the new colds throughout life, with declining frequency.
Children are most susceptible to colds, since they have not developed immunity and move in an environment of greater risk of infection. A shift of the institution experienced it often that the child in early hit frequently by the cold, as it is exposed to new viruses.
Children typically have 5-8 colds a year, but adults have around. 2 colds per year. Infections seen more frequently in winter. Possibly because we live closer together within and thus have higher risks of infection.
There is also an allergic snue, see more below hay fever.It .
Symptoms of colds
One to three days after infection will begin to experience symptoms. It may be by:
- Density in the nose.
- Loss of sense of smell.
- Let headache.
- Clear running nose.
- Clean running eyes.
There can be experienced cough and sore throat. After a few days may be liquid from the nose thicken, as mucous membranes die and become afstødt. It takes a while a green or yellow color.
The symptoms goods up to a week, and the disease rarely gives fever. Most can easily carry out their work simultaneously, and forkølelsen experienced often more an inconvenience than as an illness.
Developer Monday muscle and joint pain, combined with high fever, it is often a sign of influenza .
The prevention and diagnosis
Cold is very difficult to prevent because it can infect others with the virus from around. 24 hours before we even get symptoms of the disease. It has been trying to develop a vaccine against colds, but currently there is no effective vaccine.
By thorough wash, most viruses are killed, and when you are together with a person with a cold, should be extra attention to observe good hygiene.
The diagnosis made by the physician on the classic symptoms. It may sometimes be necessary to graft in the throat to distinguish between infection with the virus and bacteria.
Treatment of colds
It is not possible to eradicate the virus by a treatment. Antibiotics do not work against the virus. As the infection gives minor symptoms and move on by itself within a week, it is rarely necessary to provide medical care.
We can alleviate some of the symptoms of different medicines:
- The congested nose can use a nasal spray in the substances oxymetaxolin or zylometazolin (eg. Otrivin or Zymelin), which soften up.
- A runny nose can lindres with antihistamines, either on the prill or nasal spray.
- Pain and fever can be tempered with paracetamolpræparater (eg. Panodil, Pinex or Pamol).
- Cough can lindres with cough syrup.
Select and complications
The vast majority of colds precursor uncomplicated and are of short duration. In some cases, however, the virus spread to mellemøret or sinuses, and give serøs middle respectively sinusitis . It is seen most often in children.
Viruses can ease the way for infection with bacteria, and there may befall bacterial sore throat or inflammation of the lower respiratory tract (see Acute tranquilizer and pneumonia .
Patients with chronic bronchitis often opblusen of illness associated with a cold.