Definition and causes
Hjernehindebetændelse (meningitis) is an inflammation of the brain affect, and are usually caused by bacteria, fungi or viruses. The dominant causes are different depending on the child's age and maturity. Below is a summary of the bacteria, which typically can give meningitis:
For prematurely born infants and intensive department
- Staphylokokker (Staph. epidermidis).
- Streptokokker .
- Miscellaneous intestinal bacteria (typically E. coli).
- Meningokokker (N. meningitidis).
- Pneumokokker (Strep. Pneumoniae).
- H. Influenzae type b (but rare after the introduction of vaccination).
Viruses can also cause meningitis in all ages, and this is typically:
Meningococcal meningitis is the form it most often hear about, because it can occur in larger number of schools and day care centres mm. The spill through the airways, for example. mucus and saliva.
Symptoms of hjernehindebetændelse
The symptoms of meningitis is a little different depending on whether it is a virus or a bacterium that causes the disease.
Bacterial meningitis occurs with high fever, irritability, loss of appetite, headache, nausea and vomiting. The child's consciousness might be affected, everything from lethargy to coma. Seizures may be the first symptom in children under 3 years, as they often can not say that they have a headache.
The pressure in the brain increases because of betændelsestilstanden in hinderne around the brain. The child's skull emerging is not quite sammenvokset, and you can usually feel a soft place in issen. (see fontanelle ). This place is because of high pressure in the brain be udspændt or bulge out. Children over 1 year of age will be stiff in the neck and the back with pain as a result.
Bacterial meningitis (meningokokker, pneumokokker and H. Influenzae b) might be small pupillary dilation, wide eyes, the so-called petechiae. In some cases there may also be rash in the form of small, red spots on the body.
Complications by hjernehindebetændelse
The complexityby bacterial meningitis is that the child may have serious brain damage because of the high pressure in the brain. Døvhed also. There are already in a few hours developed blood poisoning That may lead to shocktilstand with fatal outcome. This applies only for the most serious cases. As a rule develop symptoms over several days.
Virus meningitis are similar to bacterial meningitis, just a milder form. Feberen is easy to moderate, and the child has a headache, is edgy, sinister and stiff in the neck and back. There is nausea and vomiting. Effect of awareness happens very rarely. The disease products usually only a week.
Precautions and diagnosis by hjernehindebetændelse
In child vaccination programme the child will be vaccinated against the bacterium H. Influenzae type b, and this has resulted in the incidence of meningitis is greatly minimized. There are now developed a few vaccines against specific bacteria, which gives meningitis. They may be given to persons who are at risk of infection in the event of an outbreak of the disease in institutions, schools and in individual households. People in the same household as the sick child must always have preventive antibiotics.
If you suspect that your child shows symptoms of meningitis, one should immediately go to the doctor. This makes the diagnosis of a clinical study, which is complemented by an analysis of a sample from rygmarvsvæsken.
Consideration of hjernehindebetændelse
Bacterial meningitis is treated with antibiotics as soon as possible. Restoration of væskebalancen in the body is also of high priority.
Virus meningitis treated only with supportive care in the form of restoration of væskebalancen and symptomatic of the case.