Definition and causes
The concept of growth masks small or large growth. The growth is measured using growth curves . A vækstkurve is made on the basis of studies of height and weight of a large group of healthy children. If your child is among the lowest 3% of the growth curve, it is small (nanismus). If it is among the top 3%, it is large (gigantismus). Some growth curves usingStandard deviationer(SD), a statistical goals, instead. Here is a small child, if it is 2 x SD below the "normal" and large, if it is 2 x SD over the "normal".
Height outside the normal range is not always an expression of the disease, but may, however, is that one's parents also are high or low. This phenomenon is called familial small or large growth. We can predict a child's sluthøjde from simple formulas:
- Sluthøjde for girls = ½ x (+ mother's father's height -13 cm).
- Sluthøjde for boys = ½ x (mother's father's height + + 13 cm).
The reasons for low altitude can be divided into hormonal and non-hormonal reasons. The non-hormonal reasons include:
- Familiær small height.
- Small birth weight in relation to the duration of the pregnancy. 80-90% of these will, however, catch up with other children and achieve normal height within 4 years of age.
- Delayed puberty: Can both be familiært and due to various hormonal diseases.
- Chronic diseases, for example. malabsorption , congenital heart disease and renal failure .
- Kromosomfejl. Downs syndrome and Turners syndrome.
- Skeletdysplasier: These are specific diseases of the skeleton. It is characteristic that the relationship between the inner side of the limbs and body length is wrong. Byakondroplasiis the arms and legs are very short while they are very long, byMorquios syndrome.
Hormonal disorders include:
- Growth hormone deficiency
- Lack of puberty: Ses. by the hereditary disease Turners syndrome
- Rachitis: Lack of vitamin D provide disturbances in bone growth.
- Cushings syndrome
It is important to know that little account more often familiært conditional than caused by hormonal diseases.
The reasons for the high altitude can also be divided into hormonal and non-hormonal reasons. The non-hormonal include:
- Familiær high altitude: Is that child's parents are high and is by far the most common cause.
- Rare genetic syndromes: Marfans syndrome, Kleinefelters syndrome and the Sotos' syndrome.
Hormonal reasons include:
- For large væksthormonproduktion
- Early puberty: Can both be familiært and due to various hormonal diseases.
- Excessive production of male sex hormones: Can the result of tumours or enzymdefekter in adrenal glands.
Symptoms of vækstforstyrrelse
Usually, a parent note that the child is greater or less than expected and compared to its peers. If the cause is hormonal diseases, there will often be specific symptoms of the disease in question (see above). By some hormonal diseases and many genetic diseases, the child will often have a special appearance, characteristic of the disease (see above).
Precautions and diagnosis
If your child does not grow as expected, one should seek their own doctor. The doctor will first take a look at the child's vækstkurve and appearance. Vækstkurven tell whether the child is growing normally or abnormally. In particular, your doctor will be aware, though there have been changes in growth, as shown by the curve at a time starts to deviate from its normal course. Changes in growth suggests disease. It is also important for the doctor to know the child's birth weight and fødselslængde and foræld
If the child has a low altitude and not look normal, your doctor will examine the syndromes and skeletdysplasier. If the child rather have a normal appearance, your doctor will examine the hormonal diseases. Often you will take a X-ray of the bones in the left wrist. On røntgenbilledet can assess bone age. If knoglealderen is behind the child's actual age, this points to hormonal disease. It will typically then take blood samples to see if we can find the disease in the body's various hormonal systems.
The same principles apply to the study of children with high altitude. Does the child normally, the parents and high growth is normal, there are indications that the height is familiært subject. If growth on the other hand has increased, your doctor will examine the hormonal diseases and signs of early puberty. Where the child is a striking appearance, will be examined for inherited diseases and rare syndromes.
Consideration of growth
The treatment depends on what the cause of vækstforstyrrelsen is.
The treatment of the various hormonal diseases depends on the individual's disease. Since it would be too extensive to review the handling of all these diseases, referred to the guidance of relevant links.
Girls with familial high altitude can be treated with estrogen from 10 years of age, if the expected sluthøjde are over 188 cm. Oestrogen treatment ensures the close vækstzonerne in the bones, which shorten the growing season and thus ensures that the girl is "too high".
Select and complications
These depend on the operative reason. Familiær small or large growth is not a disease. These children will have a normal life. However, especially children with low growth have problems with bullying.
If hormonal disease is the cause of vækstforstyrrelsen depends on the progress and complications of the disease (see links). Generally speaking, however, that growth normalized when the disease treated.