During pregnancy can be carried out various studies. Some of these will be made as a standard screening, while others will only be implemented if deemed to be an increased risk of malformations in the fetus. These studies form part of the basis for genetic counseling.
Ultrasound scan is a non-invasive tool, ie. A study goes on outside the body. The study involves no discomfort, though the earliest scans are done through the vagina, which can be uncomfortable but not painful. Here fetus displayed on a screen, often positioned so the woman can even keep up. We examine here fetus hjertelyd, its anatomy, including whether there should be some defects. In addition, examined the amount of fostervand and m
There are different biochemical markers (hormones / proteins), which are analyzed for the risk of malformation.
Double testperformed in 8 to 13. week on a regular blood test. There are analyzed for Pappa (Pregnancy associated plasma protein A) and beta-hCG (beta-human chorionic gonadotropin). These are markers for Down's syndrome if they are found in certain concentrations.
Trip Cuckoo Stone performed in the 15th for the full 22 weeks. Her analysis of AFP (alpha-foetoprotein), hCG and oestradiol, also in the right concentrations is a sign of increased risk of having a child with Down's syndrome.
One of these tests combined with ultrasound, gives a reasonably good assessment of risks to bear a child with Down's syndrome.
Fostervand Test (amniocentese)
A fostervand sample could be taken after the end of 15 week. Under ultrasound guidance introduced a needle through the skin on the woman's abdomen into the uterus. Then subtracted something embryonic fluid out, and this is sent for analysis. The cells, which pulled out here, grown and can be analyzed after 2-3 weeks. Some specific kromosomfejl can quickly analyze for. The advantage of this study is that it is also possible to measure alpha-foetoprotein that can help to assess the risk of rygmarvsbrok. Disadvantage
Mother Cake Test (chorionic villusbiopsi, CVS)
This method is usually performed earlier in pregnancy from the 11th to 14 week. Here introduced through the vagina or abdominal wall, under ultrasound guidance, a needle into the placenta, after which no material sucked out. The advantage of this unde smoke is that the answer is faster, and any abnormalities are detected earlier in pregnancy. The disadvantage is a possible increased risk of spontaneous abortion.
The latter two, invasive methods for diagnosis offered to women over 35 years, since they are in greater risk of having a child with Down's syndrome.
CTG is a graphic representation of labor and fetal heart rate. This assay is used primarily during labor to monitor fetal status during labor. It can also be used earlier in pregnancy, if you fear that the fetus is acute threat. During pregnancy becomes véerne measured with a belt on women's stomach, and heart rhythm with electrodes outside. At birth the midwife mount an electrode on the child's scalp through a woman's vagina. So you can see at birth b