Definition and causes
Cancer in blærehalskirtlen(prostate cancer) is typical of the cells in the rear part of glands and grows backward in the direction of the intestine and end up against the bladder. Her cancer can cause a lockout by the urethra, so that experienced urination problems. The cancer can spread (metastases) via the lymphatic system to lymph nodes along the great vessels in the pelvis and abdomen. Similarly, the cancer spread through the blood to the bones in the typical basin, lumbar spine, the upper part of the femur and the ribs (see bone cancer).
Prostate cancer is the third most common form of cancer among men and the commonest of the urinary tract. The cases are soaring from 50 to 80 years of age, and by post-mortem examination of men over 50 years, who died of other causes, are found prostate cancer in 30% of cases. At autopsy of men who have been removed parts of the prostate due prostatahypertrofi, seen in 10% of prostate cancer.
The new annual event has over the last decades, there has been increasing rapidly, but there are rare cases of prostate cancer until after 50 years of age.
Symptoms of prostate cancer
In the event that the cancer has not spread yet, either experienced a symptomløs state or thesame symptoms as seen by prostatahypertofi:
- Frequent urination with small portions of urine.
- Nocturnal urination.
- Heavy water.
- -Urge incontinence, which are sudden onset of heavy water, which is not possible to comment on toillettet.
Obstruction Symptoms due to the compressed urethral:
- In connection with urination may be starting trouble when you have to wait and push until you can urinate.
- Weak jet force and after dripping. Feeling that your bladder is not emptied completely.
- Sudden onset of a total stop to urinate.
- Blood in the urine seen in severe cases.
In the event that the cancer spread outside the prostatic bindevævskapsel, can be seen:
- Pain in the perineum (the area between the symphysis, tail bone and sit knots) due indvækst of nerves.
- Enlarged lymph nodes due to metastasis will causelymfeødem (fluid)in the legsand compress urine leaders of the kidney, thereby securing an extension of kidney basin. This will prove thatpain in the side of his back.
- By metastases to the bones will be perceivedbone painand possible.spontaneous fractureson the bones especially in the lumbar spine and the upper part of the femur.
- If the cancer has spread to the bone marrow, may be reduced production of cells, which formed in the bone marrow. This will be experienced as fatigue, weight loss and anemia.
Precautions and diagnosis
Seeing Monday above symptoms should seek their own doctor, who will start to take a blood test. There tested for anemia, kidney function and for specific substances, which are characteristics typical of the prostate cancer. It is about prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and alkaline phosphatase. Also, your doctor will examine the prostatic shape and size with a gloved finger through the end of arm slot.
Are there any suspicion of prostate cancer, sent Monday to a specialist unit (urological department), which will undergo an ultrasound of the prostate through the anus to assess respectively. the size, distribution and shape. At the same time can be had ultralydsvejledte biopsies of the prostate, which will be examined under microscope to see which cell types it is all about.
There will also be made a number billedundersøgleser to comment further diagnosis. Prepare a kontrastundersøglese (røngtenbilleder with the administration of contrast medium) of kidney and urinary tract to look at extensions of kidney and urinary basin leaders. There will be a bone-scintigrafi (study of bone density) and X-ray images of pain characterized the bones. Enlarged lymph nodes can be visualized by CT or MRI scan of the abdomen.
The diagnosis made by elevated PSA and using ultrasound inc. biopsies and knoglescintigrafi.
In severe urinary problems may be a partial removal of the prostate through the urethra (see prostatahypertrofi). Has the cancer does not spread, we can consider removing the entire prostate cancer in younger men.
Also, you can try radiation of 2 ways: either by external radiation or by ultrasound guidance to insert some radioactive needles in the prostate. The side effects seen here in the form of radiation damage to the Rectum and bladder.
If the cancer has spread, you can use hormone replacement therapy, which blocks the formation of male sex hormones, and this can be done medically or surgically. Surgery can remove both testicles. Hormonal treatment has good effects on bone pain and local growth in the prostate the first 2 years, after which they will experience a worsening of the disease.
Select and complications
The prognosis depends on how much the cancer has spread, and is localized to the prostate, the prognosis is fairly good. However there is a poor prognosis if the cancer has spread to lymph nodes and bones, for example.
Complication are associated with prostate cancer can be seen as urination problems, transfusion dependent anemia, spontaneous fractures of the bones and paralysis of the legs due to a combination of anterograde, moving forward.
Complications of hormone therapy may be sweating and impotence.