Definition and causes
Kidney stones are formed in the kidney basin, which is close to the kidney. Her newly formed urine collected and passed through the urinary bladder to the head. The stones are formed when lime (calcium) and waste should not remain dissolved in the urine and instead deposited as crystals. Usually these are small stones, which itself passes with urination, but may also be formed so large stone that fills the entire kidney basin. Kidney stones are not harmful in themselves, but they can, for example. get stuck in urine leaders and create a number of problem
Kidney stones are common, and 1 in 10 men and half as many women will experience an attack of kidney stones during their lifetime. It is seen most frequently in 30-40-years of age. Kidney stones are usually unilateral, but can occur in both kidneys at the same time.
At 95% can not find the triggering cause, but there may be a hereditary component. In the last 5% is the reason most often as an increased amount of lime or some other substances in the blood.
Symptoms of kidney stones
The vast majority of kidney stones are small and pass through the urinary tract, with few symptoms. Very large stone lies only in kidney basin and rarely gives rise to symptoms. When a rock measuring about 5-6 millimeters, it can become lodged in the head and causing urinary symptoms:
- Torrential painis the most prominent symptom. The pains start in the side or his back just below the lower ribs. Since the rays on the front and down against the step, as the stone moves from the kidney, through the narrow urinary head and down towards the bladder. The pains are very violent and comes in rounds (known as colic pain).
- Nausea and vomitingis also seen often, like colic pain seen this too by gallstones and tarmslyng.
- Blood in urinecan occur when the stones do smårifter in mucous membranes, but it is usually in such small quantities that it can only be seen by a urine examination.
- Moreover, there may befrequent water, As seen with urinary tract infections as blærebetændelse. Blærebetændelse can actually occur as a result of kidney stones, and frequent infections can be only one symptom of kidney stones.
Kidney stones are rarely causes symptoms, after they are passed to the bladder (see bladder stones).
Complications of kidney stones
Kidney stones are frequent, and complications are relatively rare (less than 20%). As mentioned above may cause infection in the urinary bladder, but when the stone blocks the urinary drain, bacteria can multiply in the stagnant urine and cause renal pelvis. This can be dangerous if they developed blood poisoning, which can lead to shock with life-threatening drop in blood pressure.
In total obstruction of one urine leader extended kidney basin above, and the pressure increases (calledHydronephrosis). If the obstruction is long (more than 2-3 weeks), the high pressure can cause irreparable damage to the kidney tissue (see chronic kidney failure).
Have we had an attack of kidney stones, will have an increased risk of another case of kidney stones later in life.
Precautions and diagnosis
Do we have the colic pain and / or blood in the urine, it is important to consult a doctor (this usually gives itself because the pain is so severe). Especially if you develop a fever, has quickly need medical supervision.
The diagnosis made by urine testing and blood analysis followed by imaging studies, for example. X-rays with contrast in the urinary tract or ultrasound, which you can see the size and location of any stone.
Treatment of kidney stones
Often you will just wait for the situation a few days, since we know that most kidney stones pass down through the bladder itself. It deals with pain killers, while sheep urine muscles in the head to relax and facilitate stone passage. Some of the so-called independent agents (NSAIDs) also has the power to reduce the urine production, thus reducing the excess pressure in the kidney, if there is zero in urine flow.
By infection in the kidney basin or threat of loss of kidney function due to excess, can temporarily relieve the kidney by bringing a catheter through the skin, directly into the kidney basin (neftrostomi). Alternatively, you can through a telescope instrument in the bladder introduce a much sinks from the kidney to the bladder, through the tilstoppede urine leader (a catheter JJ).
If the stones are not too large, they can be crushed with shock-waves (a kind of powerful ultrasound waves), so the stone can TISSÉS as "gravel". Shock waves are given without any surgical procedure on the body and can be done outpatient (without hospitalization), without anesthetic. Larger stones may be left with a telescopic instrument, brought up through the urethral and bladder, or in some cases through the skin to the kidney basin. This is done in full anesthesia.
Preventing kidney stones
As reasons for the vast majority of kidney stones is unknown, it is difficult to prevent them. However, we can strive to ensure that urine does not become too concentrated. This is done by drinking plenty. We should aspire to a daily urine output of 2-3 liters.
It is gradually moved away from actual diet as prevention, but it can possibly be beneficial to hold back with protein (eg. Meat) in the diet, if we have tendency to kidney stones. It also contains many oxalate kidney stones, found in certain vegetables (eg. Spinach), which might increase the risk of kidney stones, if you eat large quantities. Larger quantities of milk should be avoided because it contains some lime (calcium).