Definition and causes
Thrombocytopenia defined as a state where the number of platelets in the blood is about. 1 / 4 of the normal. Trombocytterne (platelets) is formed in the bone marrow and are an important part of the beginning of blood størkningsproces , Where the platelets will be focused on the lækagen the bleeding vessels. By thrombocytopenia stopped a bleeding very slowly, and it tends to develop bruising. There are various reasons for thrombocytopenia:
- Reduced production in bone marrow: This is seen by leukaemia ( blood ) chemotherapy and radiotherapy and alcohol abuse. Different drugs may also influence the blodpladeproduktionen.
- Increased destruction:Idiopathic trombocytopenisk purpuraITP. This disease is due to a condition in which the body forms antibodies directed against the platelets, so that these degraded by the immune system. This disease may be in an acute and chronic form. The acute form occurs after an infection in the body, for example. a respiratory. 50% of the acute go down in a chronic form, which can act as an independent disease or ledsagesymptom in, inter alia, Hodgkin's disease or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus . Neonates can be seen with the disease because the antibodies can be transmitted from mother to foetus through the placenta.
- Increased consumption of platelets: This is seen by major bleeding, which the body uses more platelets than it would be able to produce. Also can be seen as a dilution of platelets, in the very blood (which does not contain platelets) in connection with, for example. an operation.
- Increased deposit: The blood is filtered through the spleen, and normally destroyed and disposed of platelets naturally in the body. By increasing the deposit in the enlarged spleen, and there will be fewer free platelets in the blood. This can be seen by some blodkræftsygdomme.
Symptoms of thrombocytopenia
By acute thrombocytopenia (acute ITP, bleeding, etc.) are typically small ses punktformede bleeding in the skin and mucous membranes as the first. In both acute and slowly emerged thrombocytopenia, there may be spontaneous bleeding from the gums or the tendency for nosebleeds. There may also be seen large, affladede bruising, which can be found anywhere on the body. Typically, there will be problems to stop the bleeding from a small wounds, and rarely seen bleeding in urinvejs and the gut.
Precautions and diagnosis
Notes Monday a tendency to unprovoked to develop bruising, get nosebleeds or bleeding from the gums, should seek medical attention. By taking a blood sample and measure the number of platelets, we can see whether there is thrombocytopenia. In ITP, it is difficult to detect the antibodies in the blood, but if all other factors in the blood is normal, and blodpladeantallet isolation is reduced, one can suspect ITP. We must together with his doctor thoroughly review its medicinliste, as some forms of medici
If you have been diagnosed with thrombocytopenia, one should avoid situations where the risk of beating and munity legislation is imminent. In case of bleeding from wounds, they must be washed thoroughly with soapy water, and to institute a bandage, which is pressing against the wound. It is recommended that you do not grow kontaktsport. By unprovoked bleeding in the skin, nose and mouth to be a doctor.
Consideration of thrombocytopenia
Maintains Monday medicines, which reduce the platelets, in consultation with her doctor adjust medicintype and dosage. If blodpladeantallet is very low, you get a blodpladetransfusion (injection of platelets from a donor) to stop or prevent bleeding. This is only a temporary effect, why to be tested for the basic disease.
Mistænkes ITP, admitted Monday for a careful analysis and treatment. Generally the trombocytantallet normalized by treatment with binyrebarkhormon (steroid). If this does not help, can be given a high dose of immunoglobulin-G (a component of the body's own immune system). By repeatedly relapse and lack of efficacy of steroidbehandling, it may be necessary to remove the spleen, to avoid tipping of the otherwise free platelets (see definition and causes).
Select and complications
By making a thorough adjustment of the daily medicines that reduce the production of platelets, some completely avoid thrombocytopenia. Of the people who have thrombocytopenia due to ITP, helps steroidbehandling of 25%, and steroidbehandlig and the removal of the spleen of 80%. These are then a normal life, without complications. Monitoring of thrombocytopenia, however, often depends on whether there is a serious affection for the state, for example. a blood cancer or an autoimmune disease, which is difficult