Last updated:10-20-2008
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Definition and causes

Chronic renal failure refers to a persistent and often gradually increasing deterioration of renal function (as opposed to acute renal failure, which occurs suddenly).

Kidneys have many functions and vital organs. Most importantly ensure that all the time to filter the blood and excrete waste and to regulate the body's fluid and salt balance by producing urine. In addition, the kidneys produce hormones that help to regulate blood pressure and the formation of red blood cells.

In chronic renal failure deteriorates these functions. Waste, salt and fluid accumulates in the body and blood pressure, and the formation of new blood disturbed. The mode can end up with total kidney failure, where dialysis or kidney transplant is needed to survive.

Chronic renal failure can have many causes and may be the end result of a variety of renal diseases, for example. Glomerulonephritis, chronic renal pelvis and polycystic kidney. A frequent cause is kidney damage as a result of long-term diabetes (diabetic nephropathy). In just a few percentage is the cause of chronic kidney failure, loss of blood flow through the kidney and thus lack of oxygen to the kidney tissue. This is calledischemicnephropathy and is due to the gradual clogging of the arteries to one or both kidneys due to arteriosclerosis.

In 20% the cause of the chronic renal failure unknown.

Symptoms of chronic renal failure

As mentioned lost kidney function is often progressive and the symptoms only start to occur when more than half of the feature is lost. There can be many different symptoms due to renal many functions.

Typically, the first signfatiguedue anemia, which occurs because renal production of erytropoietin (EPO) reduced. EPO is a hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells.

When kidney function when down 10-15% for the symptoms of accumulation of waste. It is aboutmadlede, nauseaand possible.vomiting. Some sheepitchingand each will have destroyed some of their nerves, which may givefeel disturbances in the feet. In addition, you can getbone painand inflammation of the heart sac withchest painto follow. Men can getimpotenceand the formation of brystkirtelvæv, while women's contraction can stop. Finally, you can get fluid in the skin withswelling, In the lungs withshortness of breathand in the mindheadache, Possibly.awareness Blurandconvulsionsas a consequence.

80% have high blood pressure, either as a result of disease, or as one of the operative reasons.

Precautions and diagnosis

If you have kidney disease, it is important to be cautious regarding consumption of even normally harmless drugs. Very drugs are excreted in the kidneys, and they can take damage and renal disease deteriorate with kidney failure to follow. Ask therefore always your doctor before taking new medication.

The diagnosis of chronic renal failure made by a series of blood and urine tests. It will often perform a scan of the kidneys with ultrasound, CT or MR. This will usually show shriveled kidneys.

Treatment and course of chronic renal failure

Treatment consists of complicated medical treatment and is a specialist task to be performed by a kidney medical department (nefrologisk department). Chronic renal failure is unfortunately not curable, but it focuses on delaying the disease and thus the loss of kidney function, including by using certain blood products.

Is the cause arteriosclerosis and ischemic nephropathy, depends on the treatment of injury when the disease was discovered. In some cases you can, at a karkirurgisk operation, restore blood supply to the kidney, kidney damage and halt development.

Treatment of symptoms is partly with medication and with kostomlægning to very low protein diet. It adds hormones, including EPO, to keep blood formation and bone strength in Equal.

Regardless of treatment mode will usually gradually move towards total kidney failure, and dialysis becomes necessary. In dialysis blood is cleaned by machine in a kind of artificial kidney. The procedure is carried out regularly and prolongs life expectancy with chronic renal failure, but does not stop the disease. If you are young or middle age can be written up for a kidney, which can extend life to almost normal.

Strict observance of diet and regular medical check-ups and medicines regulation can postpone the need for dialysis, and many with chronic renal failure living a normal life for many years.


This article is formed on the Health Guide on 03.08.06


Related articles:

Acute kidney failure (acute renal failure)
Chronic renal failure (chronic renal insufficiency)
Renal failure (renal insufficiency)
Total kidney failure (Total insufficiency)



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