Definition and causes
Leukaemia is a common term for a number of diseases, which involve bone marrow and the blood. In principle characterized leukemia as a group of malignant (malignant) disease with increased formation of blood cells, or precursors to them. Typically, there has been an error in modnings process of blood cells and there is an overproduction of one type of cells (leukæmicellen), which accumulate in the blood and bone marrow.
The cause of leukemia is the principle that one has acquired some errors on the kromosomerne . As a result, the leukæmicellen share uncontrollable and does not respect its surroundings. In this way the formation of blood cells, which operate normally suppressed, resulting in that accumulate the sick leukæmicelle and has reduced the number of normal blood cells.
The background to the acquired defects in kromosomerne is usually unknown, but radiation, chemicals and environmental factors can have a significant role.
There are 4 main types of leukemia, which makes a distinction between chronic and sudden (acute) diseases:
- Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).
- Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).
- Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).
- Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).
Since there is a lack of normal cells: Leukocytes (white blood cells), erythrocytes (red blodlegmer) and platelets (platelet) (see generally on blood ), The typical symptoms include:
- Signs of anaemia (anaemia), such as paleness, fatigue and dizziness.
- Infektionstegn as fever and malaise.
- The trend for bleeding due to thrombocytopenia (blodplademangel) such as. nosebleeds and many bruising.
- Weight loss and decreased appetite.
Precautions and diagnosis
Do we have the above symptoms should seek medical attention. Apart from blood samples and knoglemarvsundersøgelse you can often make the diagnosis.
Treatment and progress
See under the specific sections on the diseases.