Definition and causes
Acute lymphocytic leukemia is also known asbørneleukæmiand is a serious disease, which belongs to a group of blodkræftsygdomme (leukæmier). The disease affects almost exclusively children and is due to an error occurred in blood formation in which the defective white blood cells divide unchecked. This provides a range of symptoms and complications.
All blood cells develop from stamcellen in the bone marrow. Stamcellen divides into 2 lines, respectivelymyeloidandlymphoidstem cell. The myeloid stem cell develops again in 3 different lines, resulting in the formation of red blood cells, some of the white blood cells and platelets (see the blood in general ). The lymphoid stem cell is responsible for the development of lymphocytes, which is also a type of white blood cells and thus an important part of the immune system. During this review the cells of different precursors, where there may be errors.
ALL defined as a malignant (malignant) blood disease which has made a stop in the development of lymphocytes from the lymphoid stem cell. By ALL formed only a specific type of lymphocyte, which is immature and ufunktionel. Since there has been an error in the cell program, shares this cell type is uncontrolled. It also live longer than normal and have less tendency to go to the grounds. This will accumulate a large number of these defective white blood cells, which means that other blood cells such as erytrocyt anaemia and bleeding (see thrombocytopenia .
It is characteristic of ALL that it is hurtigudviklende and that the malignant lymphocyte found in bone marrow and blood. In addition, this lymfocyttype also be in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver and nervous tissues.
This is the most common malignant disease among children, and there are about. 50 new cases a year in which age is typically 3 years. The rarely seen in adults, where around. is 30 new cases per year.
Symptoms of ALL
It is characteristic of the disease, the symptoms are strong and developing rapidly. Sygehistorien is short and especially the parents should be aware of their children if they develop the following symptoms:
- Signs of anaemia ( anaemia ), Such as paleness, fatigue, dizziness and headache.
- Major tendency to bleeding with, for example. nosebleeds and bruising.
- Fast indsættende fever and malaise due to infections.
- Bone pain seen particularly in children.
- There can be enlarged lymph nodes
- There may, in severe cases, be seen and felt a bump respectively. left and right side of the abdomen just below the ribs by an enlarged spleen and liver.
Precautions and diagnosis
Do we have the above symptoms should immediately seek out a doctor. In the case of a child, which soon develops very strong symptoms, do you call 112 after an ambulance. The doctor will take a blood sample, as in the case of ALL including will show increased number of white blood cells. The symptoms of ALL may resemble many other diseases, why the diagnosis made final by producing a knoglemarvsundersøgelse , Which will show an increased number and different form of the malignant lymphocyte.
Do we have the suspicion that nervevævet would be affected, you can make a spinalvæskeundersøgelse to see if there was accumulation of the malignant form of lymfocytten around the spinal cord.
Treatment of ALL
Treatment consists of providing certain types of cellegifte ( chemotherapy), which is very specific to this malignant type of lymphocyte and hits the remaining blodcelletyper in the bone marrow with a milder impact. There can be supplemented with prednisolone (binyrebarkhormon). It also gives cellegifte directly into the spinal cord to avoid the spread of the central nervous system.
Treatment should be maintained subsequent 2-3 years to avoid relapse. During this period, released Monday to take cellegifte on prilled.
Select and complications
ALL requires immediate treatment and receive not this Monday, ending the disease fatal in a few months. The forecast is very good for children, and the vast majority are cured, but there are more bodies than the bone marrow involved, the prognosis worse.
In adults, the prognosis is only average, although there seen more than relapse in children. However, the treatment in the first place on most adults. Without taking repeated relapse in younger adults, one can consider a bone marrow.