Definition and causes

Menopause means that a woman's menstrual bleeding stops. Transition age (menopause) is the period surrounding the menopause, where the woman is characterized by the hormonal changes as her body undergoes. This period can last years. Menopause occurs between the 48th and the 55th years, with an average around 51 years.

Menopause preceded by a period when the woman's fertility is falling (from the 35th year), and the ovaries become less sensitive to some of the hormones that control the maturation of eggs. This often leads to longer periods between menstrual periods, and before they hold up, there will typically be a period that does not produce eggs, but there is still bleeding.

These changes in hormonal balance is responsible for many of the symptoms, the woman may experience in menopause. Some of the mechanisms are not fully elucidated.

Menopause is a time when large parts of the female body is undergoing a transformation. The female sex hormones influence the continuous nydannelse of bone mass and regeneration of the skin.

Almost all women in menopause announces that they have klimakterielle symptoms, approximately. half of them report they are difficult haunted by them.

Symptoms of menopause (menopause)

  • In the last years before menopause, when women have longer intervals blødningsfri, she can seeheavier bleeding and rejection of blood clots.

  • Hot flushes and sweatingperceived as a sudden rise in temperature over the whole body, especially in the face, like she may experience a reddening across most of the body. Similarly, she may experience sweating over the whole body.

  • Insomnia, joint pain and a range of psychiatric symptoms.

  • Impairedsexual functionAnd partly because of lack of appetite, but many women also experience dryness of the vagina due to changed hormonal balance.

  • Urination problemsin the form of-urge incontinence (sudden urge to urinate).

Precautions and diagnosis

The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of symptoms. There is however important that women seek medical advice if she experiences bleeding long after the last menstrual period (ie months), or if she is experiencing contact bleeding, as during intercourse. Such bleeding can be a sign of fibroids, cancer of the uterus or cervix.

Long intervals bleeding and minor bleeding is normal during this period and should not cause concern.

Treatment of menopause (menopause)

In most women the klimakterielle symptoms disappear within a few years. Some women, however, is so annoyed, especially by heat and sweating that treatment is necessary. The treatment is based on the female sex hormones (oestrogens and progestogens) in a combination, because estrogen alone can increase the risk of ovarian cancer (endometrial cancer).

The treatment is also called hormone replacement therapy or HRT. There are various treatments, and where the woman is on hiatus every 28 day here and get a afstødningsblødning. This treatment is very similar to multi-stage P-pill treatment. Break may also be held every 3 months, or to apply preparations, where the gap and thus bleeding eliminated. See also the article on hormone treatment.

In addition to hormone therapy, it is recommended that women boots treatment with calcium tablets and vitamin D, to reduce the risk of brittle bones (osteoporosis).

Treatment with hormones


  • Increases woman's life.

  • Reduces or eliminates hot and sweating.

  • Relieve urinary discomfort.

  • Prevent bone degradation.

  • Can delay the aging of the skin.

  • Improper cancer of the colon.

  • Delaying Alzheimer's disease.

  • Reduces the risk of arteriosclerosis of the heart.

  • Increases libido.


  • For the purposes of preparations which are kept pause, a bleeding.

  • There may be irregular bleeding, headaches, sore breasts and fluid retention the first 3 months.

  • There is a small increased risk of breast cancer.

  • Increased risk of blood clots in the legs and lungs.

Prevention of genes in the menopause (klimakterielle genes)

Regular exercise and healthy diet can reduce the nuisance at the menopause.

By dryness of the vagina during intercourse can be used sliding Cream, which can be bought at the pharmacy. The changing composition of mucus in the vagina may lead to increased frequency of the vagina sponge, so it's wise to pay attention to the odors and itching that can be treated with fungal cream (imidazole).

Select and complications

As mentioned, most klimakterielle genes move by itself within a few years. Since, however, the risk of developing a range of diseases as a result of the cancellation of hormonal influences, always in consultation with her doctor decide for themselves whether to boot a hormone treatment. The doctor here will assist with information on the advantages and disadvantages.

The frequency of side effects and the increased risk of certain diseases result can be increased by underlying diseases such as other types of cancer, family cases of cancer and smoking.





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