Definition and causes
Bakteriæmi is a condition which is detected in live bacteria in the blood, but this says nothing about whether the body is affected by these bacteria. Normally, there are no bacteria in the blood, and the presence of bacteria may have 2 reasons:
- Intravascular transfer: That means that the bacterium may originate from an object which is placed directly into the bloodstream, such as snakes introduced through the skin and artificial heart valves.
- Ekstravaskulær transfer: That means that the bacterium has entered the bloodstream through the lymphatic system disorders (such as. About to come to a rustent nails) and has survived lymfesystemets immune systems.
Bakteriæmi seen frequently in immunocompromised people, including people who fail different blood or other serious ailments. Also seen it frequently in drug users, who runs itself with (usterile) needles in blodårerne. Bakteriæmi may also frequently seen (slightly) after dentists, especially after tooth extraction.
The hospital has about. 5% of the embedded bacteremia. In some cases,
bacteremia cause a severe blood poisoning (see below), but do not always.
Sepsis or septicaemia called on the Danishblood poisoningand is an indication of a systemic reaction (the influence of the entire body) due to a serious infection in the body. By a strong immune system infection provides a variety of substances, which together with the bacteria will affect the body. Sepsis is defined by some specific symptoms (see below), which occurs as a result of this influence. Sepsis is not an independent disease, but can be a complication of infections, particularly among people with a basic immunsvækkende suffering s
The cause of sepsis can be infected with the bacteria (most), viruses, fungi and parasites. There are characteristic bakteriefund related to different ages and there are also typical of bacteria infections in the hospital. Serious cases of sepsis caused by typical infection with bacteria. Sepsis is estimated to hit 2 to 4% of those who are taken to hospital.
In the worst cases can lead to sepsis septic shock . This is an acute life-threatening condition in which blood pressure drops to as low values that are not blodgennemløb in the principal organs (brain, kidneys, liver), the function of these bodies to stop. Most of septic shock cases occur in patients.
Symptoms of bacteremia and sepsis
Bakteriæmican lead to symptoms of varying nature. Depending on how serious the case is, can be seen everything fromno symptomsorslight feverto suddenlyserious illnessas sepsis and septic shock.
By sepsiscan be seen the following symptoms:
- General malaise, chills and muscle pain.
- High fever (often of volatility), nausea and vomiting.
- Fast breathing.
- Fast pulse. That is more than 90 beats per minute.
- Pale, cool and bluish skin.
- Dizziness and disorientation (confusion) or bevidsthedssløring.
- Jaundice if the infection is located in the liver.
In severe sepsis can be developed DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation), which is a condition in which an increased coagulation (clotting) of blood in the veins of the subsequent formation of blood clots for example. in the leg and spontaneous bleeding When platelets are exhausted. Suddenly indsættende DIC seen particularly in connection with sepsis and septic shock And there appears the following symptoms:
- Bevidsthedssløring and problems with breathing.
- Petekkier (small dotted bleeding in the skin).
- Blødningstendens possible. from operationssår due to depletion of platelets in the blood ( Thrombocytopenia).
- The lack of urination because of renal failure .
- Blood clotting in small vascular seen in the early phase of the DIC.
- Blood clotting in major cardiovascular seen after an extended period of DIC.
Precautions and diagnosis
If one has fever and is in hospital, there is a risk that we may have sepsis. with bacteremia. The doctor will take a blood sample of some of the special glass, in which bacteria have good growth prospects, and send them to a laboratory. This is called a bloddyrkning . If there are bacteria in the blood, they will grow up in the glass in a few days, and we can determine the type of bacterium.
If you get symptoms of sepsis, it is important to seek out a doctor. The doctor will make the diagnosis from the symptoms develop, and there is no time to wait for blodprøvesvar. The doctor will ask about the following things that can identify the likelihood that there would be no sepsis:
- If you have recently been taken to a hospital?
- If you have previously received antibiotics, which may have disrupted previous blodprøvesvar?
- Do we have been through an operation or have had plastikslanger or been hospitalized prostheses in the body recently?
- Is there a fundamental disease that can affect the immune system?
- If you have a drug addiction?
- Do we have been travelling abroad in the tropics recently?
Consideration of bacteremia and sepsis
By facilitating the cases of bacteremia can, after having been out of the bacterium that is in the blood, deal with a specific antibiotics to which the bacterium. It may be given to prilled, or sprayed directly into the veins, if one is hard affected. The latter would typically be done by doctors at the hospital. Behandlingstiden depends on the type of bacterium that is and can vary from 1-4 weeks.
In severe forms of sepsis, we must ensure that there is sufficient blood flow in the bodies. This can be done by providing liquid and possible. blood into a vein. This helps to keep blood pressure up and thus ensure the oxygen supply to tissues. It can also provide the medicines that affect the blood vessels to get blood pressure to rise.
DIC triggered by sepsis treated very intensively with the protection of blood flow, tissue and security of breathing. Infection treated by giving antibiotics directly into the veins while the various substances, which prevent coagulation (størkningen). In the case of a major bleeding due to størkningsproteinerne is used up, can be given a transfusion of blood plasma , Which contains these størkningsproteiner.
In sepsis, we must also ensure that you get enough oxygen into the lungs. The first approach is to give the person ilttilskud through a næsekateter, a small plastikslange through which flow of oxygen into the nose. In the most difficult cases of septic shock, it may be necessary to put the person temporarily in the respirator to help with breathing.
The infection, which has led to sepsis, is being treated aggressively with antibiotics, which affect the bacterium that most likely cause of infection. After that we have grown the blood and found the culprit bacterium (after approx. A couple of days), you can, if necessary, switch to an antibiotic to which this bakterietype.
If you have an abscess filled with bacteria, the latter may be the cause of the debt incurred sepsis, and we will remove this and clean up the area by a minor surgical operation.
Select and complications
Bakteriæmi:The forecast depends on the type of bacterium causing the infection, and whether they have a basic disease. Overall, bacteremia very dangerous if it develops sepsis, and the mortality rate in these cases is high. This applies particular