Definition and causes
Diabetes type 2 is an epidemic which developed in a relatively late age, and due to a reduced insulin sensitivity in the body's cells. The disease is also callednon insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, Or "gammelmands" diabetes.
I pancreas involves hormones include controlling the body's sugar balance. It is aboutglucagonandinsulin. The insulin makes the sugar, which is in the blood more easily absorbed in the body cells, predominantly in muscle and liver cells.
In type 2 diabetes (previously known as non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM), there is a reduced sensitivity to insulin in the cells, which must incorporate the sugar (insulin resistance).
Since the cells can not absorb sugar because of the lack of response to high insulin in the blood, accumulate it, and your blood sugar rises. The cells are instead forced to use fat and protein as an energy source.
Bugspytskirtlen responding to the high blood sugar by increasing production of insulin, and increased insulin production can be long or short-term keep the symptoms of diabetes in check. Finally, bugspytskirtlen become so congested that insulin production is not likely to reflect the reduced sensitivity of the cells. The insulin-producing cells in bugspytskirtlen may also possibly "udtrættes", and their production of insulin decreases gradually.
The inappropriately high concentration of sugar in the blood is excreted in the urine in the kidneys, and through so-called osmosis to the high concentration of sugar draw water from the body into the urine. The result is dehydration due to many urination with sukkertilblanding.
Blood sugar levels may rise to as high values, it can be dangerous for the body and can be developed so-callednon-ketotisk hyperosmolært coma(see Complications below). In rare cases in which insulin production is much reduced, the disease can arise during the so-called ketoacidosis (see Type 1 diabetes)
There is a clear link between an unhealthy lifestyle and type 2 diabetes. The following are associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes:
- Obesity. Approximately 75%, to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are overweight.
- Lack of exercise.
- High blood pressure.
- The trend for arteriosclerosis and diseases such as heart attack.
- Dyslipidemia with high fat and cholesterol in the blood.
- Diabetes in the family. Inheritance Compatibility plays a big role. Up to 40% of direct relatives of type 2 diabetics develop the disease.
- Certain hormonal diseases such as Cushing's disease and acromegaly and severe infectious diseases.
- Temporary diabetes during pregnancy.
- Certain types of medication, including pill, some diuretic agents and adrenal cortical hormones.
The disease often debuterer from 40 years of age and above, but as a larger proportion of the population, especially young people, has become increasingly overweight, seen outbreaks now fully into the child ages. Approximately 10% of all 70 year olds have type 2 diabetes mellitus.
There are about. 125,000 Danes suffering from the disease, and the number is growing. It is estimated that there are between 100,000 and 125,000 cases that have not been diagnosed.
Another form of diabetes mellitus is Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM). This form debuterer often earlier than type 2 diabetes. The reason is that the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, has been totally or partially destroyed. The reason is thus different from the two types, but the symptoms and complications are broadly similar. There are about. 25,000 people in Denmark who suffer from Type 1 diabetes.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes
The symptoms develop slowly. You can go for years without noticing it big with a dormant type 2 diabetes. The first symptoms will often be:
- Pronounced thirst.
- Frequent urination (up to 1 time per hour around the clock).
- Weight loss.
- Itching around the genital organs.
- Trouble concentrating with eyes.
Not rarely diagnosed type 2 diabetes in symptoms resulting from diseases (late-diabetic complications, see below). It may be foot ulcers who have a hard time throughout the up or cardiovascular disease. The disease can debutere violently with non-ketotisk hyperosmolært coma (see acute complications).
It may be difficult to distinguish whether a patient has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, people often an age below 30, normal weight or low weight. In type 2 people are often overweight and have higher age.
Have your doctor suspects that a patient has diabetes, can he take a urine Stix, which measure whether there is sugar in the urine (usually there is no sugar in the urine). Subsequently, a blood sample (perhaps taken fasting) could show an elevated blood sugar. Are there both elevated blood sugar and sugar in the urine, it is a great risk that the patient has diabetes.
For further uncertainty can perform a so-called glucose load test. She eats a given quantity of sugar fasting, and after a time measured blood glucose with a blood test. If your blood sugar level is above a certain value, it means that he produces enough insulin (Type 1), or that insulin sensitivity is reduced (type 2).
In type 1 insulin production is reduced, while insulin production more or less intact by Type 2 It is now possible to measure a protein in blood that are produced along with insulin. High levels of this protein, combined with positive findings in other diabetes test, is synonymous with type 2 diabetes (where the pancreas compensates and thus produce greater amounts of insulin).
The doctor, however, have often not the major difficulty in making the diagnosis.
By diabetes may occur because of different diseases and complications. Some may occur acute, and some come after many years with diabetes (late-diabetic complications).
The acute complications are:
- Hypoglycaemia(low blood sugar). Seen if the person has spent too much sugar, without taking enough, for example. in the context of sports (most often seen in type 1). It can also occur if the insulin dose or dose antidiabetic agents (see treatment), for one reason or another have been too high. Insulin levels are more difficult to manage in relation to alcohol consumption, so the intake of large amounts may cause hypoglycaemic periods.
All diabetics have tried to have knowntouch. It acts like a couple of times a week, and is a state with low blood sugar, which the person can sort through the consumption of fast carbohydrates. The low blood sugar shown by drowsiness and mood swings, thirst, water and possible. vomiting and nausea.
Will the condition had not improved, it can at worst lead to unconsciousness,insulin shock. It is a serious situation that requires treatment at a hospital. Treatment consists of administration of sugar (glucose) and a hormone, which releases sugar (glucagon). Insulin Shock is rare. The episode is mostly for type 1 diabetes, where overdose of insulin is the predominant cause.
- Hyperglycaemia(high blood sugar). Elevated blood sugar is a frequent mode and corrected with medicine tablet or insulin injections. But by greatly elevated blood sugar will "drag" of water out of urine, which formed in the kidney. It will lead to severe dehydration, which can lead to so-calledhyperosmolært, non-ketotisk coma. This is not the same asdiabetic coma, As seen in type 1 d