Definition and cause
Type 1 diabetes is a relatively frequent disease in which the body's own production of the hormone insulin is stopped or reduced. This means that sugar accumulates in the blood - hence the name diabetes.
Inpancreasformed to hormones, including controlling the body's sugar balance. These hormones calledglucagonandinsulin. Insulin makes sugar from the blood absorbed in the body's cells, predominantly in muscle and liver cells.
In type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM) is stopped or reduced production of insulin in the pancreas due to the destruction of the cells that produce the hormone. This destruction is thought to have many reasons (see below).
The lack of insulin production makes the sugar accumulates in the blood because it can not be absorbed in the body's cells. The cells will instead use fat and protein as an energy source with the slimming effect. The liver, which among other things act as custodian of sugar, can not absorb the sugar, which releases the intestine to the blood. But as the body's cells lacking sugar, the liver will still release sugar from its depots, which discharged.
The inappropriately high concentration of sugar in the blood is excreted in the urine in the kidneys, and - via so-called osmosis - pulling the high concentration of sugar water from your body into the urine. The result is dehydration due to many urination with sukkertilblanding.
Body sugar depots also crushed, and to get energy makes the body including burning of fat and protein. This combustion makes the formation of acidic waste, called ketones. In large doses are ketones dangerous for the body, and one can develop a fatal form of acid accumulation calledketoacidosis.
It is still unclear exactly what causes underlying the destruction of the insulin-producing cells. A lot of factors suspected to contribute, including infection, food components and autoimmune diseases (attack by the immune system in the body's own cells). There is shown a hereditary component in the development of type 1 diabetes, and you have an increased risk of developing diabetes, if your parents have the disease.
The disease debuterer usually in childhood or adolescence, but may prove of all ages. There are about. 25,000 Danes, who suffers from IDDM, and approx. 800 sheep annually disease in Denmark. IDDM is good for 10% of all diabetes cases.
Another form of diabetes is calledType 2 diabetes(formerly called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM), which accounts for the remaining 90% of diagnosed diabetes cases in Denmark. It is also called "gammelmands" diabetes and often occurs after 40 years of age. The reason for this type of diabetes is not a destruction of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, but the cells around the body loses the ability to respond to insulin, and thus absorb sugar. This is called insulin resistance.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes
The symptoms developed gradually over weeks to months, and shows begin at:
Frequent urination (up to 1 time per hour around the clock).
Weight loss and emaciation.
Cramps, weakness and pain in benmuskulaturen.
One of the first symptoms can be infections of the skin and mucous membranes.Furunklerand fungus in the crotchseen frequently. Bacteria are pleased with the sugar in the urine, and this makesurinary tract infectionsalso are frequent. You may also have nausea and stomach discomfort. By prolonged illness occurs accumulation of acidic waste (ketoacidosis), which ultimately leads to an untreated life-threatening condition (see below).
Even with diabetes, which is velbehandlet with insulin (see Treatment below), can cause serious complications. Some may occur acute, and some come after many years with diabetes (so-calledsendiabetiske complications).
(low blood sugar).
Seen if the person has spent too much sugar, without taking enough, for example. in the context of sports. It can also occur if the insulin dose, for one reason or another have been too high. Insulin levels are more difficult to manage in relation to alcohol consumption, so the intake of large amounts may cause hypoglycaemic periods. All diabetics have tried to have knownsensing.It acts like a couple of times a week, and is a state with low blood sugar, which the person can sort through the consumption of fast carbohydrates. The low blood sugar shown by drowsiness and mood swings, thirst, water and possible. vomiting and nausea. Will the condition had not improved, it can at worst lead to unconsciousness, calledinsulin shock.This is a serious situation that requires treatment at a hospital. The average diabetic insulin shock will experience a few times in life.